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Instrumental Case
1.       tunci
7149 posts
 16 Aug 2012 Thu 12:56 am

 

Instrumental Case

 

Insturmental Case marking turns the nouns into instrumental formthat expresses

´time and instrument´

 Turkish instrumental case affix originally was " +n ".

But in contemporary Turkish this affix was replaced by  "ile" and its suffixed form " -la [-le]". However we still see this suffix especially in time expressions although it has

lost its function ın modern Turkısh, such as ;

 

yazı---> in summer

kışın ----> in winter

yaya---> by walk, on foot

öğlen  ----> [at] noon , midday

ilkin  ------> first, firstly

# Sometimes we see this suffix used in some words after negative marking  -sIz.

Ansızın --> An + sız + ın ------> Suddenly

               [moment + less + ly ]

This suffix is lost its function and replaced with "ile" in modern Turkish.

====================================================

"İle"

"ile" particle is used as Instrumental case affix in modern Turkish .

And its suffixed form is "-la,-le".

In nouns ;

Noun stem + la [le]

Yağmur + la  ---> with rain 

Yağmurla gelen bereket --> the blessing that comes with[by] rain. 

Kalem + le ---> with pen

Araba + y + la ---> with car [by car]

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

In plural nouns

Yağmurlar + la ---> with rains

Kalemler + le  ----> with pens

Arabalar + la  ----> with cars [by cars]

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

In nouns with possesive suffix

Kalemim + le ---> with my pen

Araban + la ----> with your car [by your car]

Bilgisayarımız + la ---> with our computer

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

In personal pronouns

benim + le ---> with me

senin + le ---> with you

Onun + la ---> with him/her

bizim + le ----> with us

sizin + le -----> with you [plural]

onlar + la -----> with them

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

In demonstrative pronouns

bununla [ bunun + la] ---> with this [by this]

şununla [ şunun + la ] ---> with that [by that]

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

In plural demonstrative pronouns

bunlarla [ bunlar + la] ----> with these [by these]

şunlarla [ şunlar + la ] ----> with those [ by those]

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


In reflexive pronouns ;

Kendimle [ Kendim + le ] ---->  with myself

Kendinle [ Kendin + le ] -----> with yourself

Kendimizle [ Kendimiz + le ] ---> with ourselves

Kendileriyle [ Kendileri + y + le ] ---> with themselves

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

In question pronouns

Kimle -Kiminle [ kimin + le] ---> with who

Neyle [Ne + y + le ] -----> with what

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

In Indefinite pronouns

Kimseyle  [ Kimse + y + le ] ----> with anyone [ with no one]

Herkesle [ Herkes + le ] -----> with everybody [every one]

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>









 



Edited (8/16/2012) by tunci
Edited (8/16/2012) by tunci
Edited (8/16/2012) by tunci

Moha-ios and lana- liked this message
2.       tunci
7149 posts
 16 Aug 2012 Thu 02:18 am

 

The functions of  Instrumental Case in Turkish


1. It informs us the "Instrument  "


İstanbul´dan uçakla  döndü.

He returned from İstanbul by plane.

 

Baltayla ağacı  kestim.

I cut the tree with an axe.

 

*******************************

2. It informs  ´togetherness´


Ankara´ya  abimle gittim.

I went to Ankara with my older brother.

[we have done this action together]

 

*******************************

3. It indicates " reciprocity" [eachother]


Çocuklar birbirleriyle şaka yapıyorlardı.

The kids were joking with eachother.


*******************************

4. Forms "adverbs"


Sinirle odaya girdi.

He entered into the room with temper.


*******************************

5. Forms " time adverbs"


Güneşin batımıyla yola çıktım.

I set off with sunset.


*******************************

Moha-ios liked this message
3.       Abla
3647 posts
 16 Aug 2012 Thu 07:55 am

Quote:tunci

3. It indicates " reciprocity" [eachother]


Çocuklar birbirleriyle şaka yapıyorlardı.

The kids were joking with eachother.


 

With cooperative verbs marked with -ş- (benzeşmek, anlaşmak, konuşmak) instrumental is used. It is a good rule to remember but I don´t know if you can trust it always. At least I think even if we can ´talk to someone´ in English I think it is always ´talk with someone´

 

                                   biriyle konuşmak

 

in Turkish, right?

4.       tunci
7149 posts
 16 Aug 2012 Thu 02:32 pm

 

Quoting Abla

 

 

With cooperative verbs marked with -ş- (benzeşmek, anlaşmak, konuşmak) instrumental is used. It is a good rule to remember but I don´t know

if you can trust it always.

At least I think even if we can ´talk to someone´ in English

I think it is always ´talk with someone´

 

                                   biriyle konuşmak

 

in Turkish, right?

 

"Konuşmak " naturally is an action that is performed by more than one person.

[there are some people talking themselves though, but people call them "mad" ]

As you said, we [Turks] talk with someone. As talking is performed by at least two people,  more than one person involves in this. Of course one of them might be more talkative and take over the almost whole conversation but it is still an action that is performed "with eachother".

However, we do rarely use "to" case with konuşmak that is used

in order to showing anger to somebody  , telling off , giving lesson to someone,

advising someone. There is a hidden "domination" when we use "to" as we want to dominate the talking in order to make that person listen to what we have to say .

We want him to listen us without interrupting or objecting us.

This is a way of angry talk that we give to others.

Ona ne konuşacağımı biliyorum ---> I know what I am gonna talk to him !

                                                I know what I am gonna say to him !

 

==================================================================

Secondly, we can use "to" with "konuşmak"  to address to the crowd ;

Başbakan kalabalığa konuştu ---> The prime minister talked to [addressed to] the crowd.

Of course the action is perfomed by only one person that is "başbakan" [prime minister]

The crowd just listened to him [well, they had to listen they had no choice anyway]

 



Edited (8/16/2012) by tunci
Edited (8/16/2012) by tunci
Edited (8/16/2012) by tunci [some texts missing]
Edited (8/16/2012) by tunci

5.       Abla
3647 posts
 16 Aug 2012 Thu 04:56 pm

Quote:tunci

As you said, we [Turks] talk with someone.

 

What? I always talk to someone.

 

But seriously, I always thought instrumental is the absolute formal demand of -ş- verbs but your prime minister example shows something else.

 

Thanks for explaining it, tunci.



Edited (8/16/2012) by Abla

6.       tunci
7149 posts
 16 Aug 2012 Thu 05:55 pm

 

Quoting Abla

 

 

What? I always talk to someone.

 

But seriously, I always thought instrumental is the absolute formal demand of -ş- verbs but your prime minister example shows something else.

 

Thanks for explaining it, tunci.

 

Shall we take it  you are a dominating talker ? 

 

another example ;

ağlamak = to cry

ağlaşmak = to cry together

because it is "together" we automaticly use "ile"

Müjganla ben ağlaşırdık.

I and Müjgan used to cry [together] alot.

 

However, if it was cryning together for someone , it takes dative[a]

Cenazesinde babama çok ağlaşmıştık.

We all [together] had cried alot to [for] my father in his funeral.

 

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