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TURKISH- ENGLISH LANGUAGES
1.       og2009
408 posts
 18 Nov 2017 Sat 10:51 pm

FOR WHOM IT MAY CONCERN

                                                                                                     -1-                                                                     

 

LINQUISTICS - D襤L B襤L襤M襤

GRAMMAR - D襤L B襤LG襤S襤

ENGLISH AND TURKISH -With examples-

 

-ALPHABET - ALFABE, ABC

 A, b, c

 -LETTER - HARF - alfabe birimi

 Letters of the alphabet

 -PHONOGRAM - HECE - ses birimi

 WORD - KEL襤ME, SÖZCÜK, SÖZ -kavram birimi, düünce birimi

 Lexicology - kelime bilimi

 Contextual meaning - kapsam

 Root - kelimede kök, kaynak

 Basis, base - taban kelime

 Stem - kelimede gövde

 Affix - kelime eki

 Postposition - tak覺

Meaning sense - kelimede anlam, düünce

 Modality - kip

 Infinitive - master

 Number- say覺, rakam

                                                                                                       -2-

 Idiom, expression - deyim

 Argo - slang

 Saying, style of speech - deyi

Dialect - lehçe

 Analogy - yak覺t覺rma                                                                                                     

 Concept - kavram

 Term - terim

 Metaphor - mecaz

 Proverb - ata sözü

 -SENTENCE , GROUP - CÜMLE, TÜMCE - yarg覺 birimi

 Phrase - cümlede öbek

 Clause - yan cümle

 Active - aktif, etken

 Passive - pasif, edilgen

 Direct - direct

 Indirect - indirekt

 Declamation - söz sanat覺, belagat

 -PARAGRAPH - PARAGRAF, BÖLÜM - anlam birimi

 -TEXT - MET襤N - konu birimi

BOOK - K襤TAP

 NOVEL - ROMAN

 STORY - H襤KAYE, ÖYKÜ

                                                                                                     -3-

 

ARTICLE - MAKALE

 COLUMN - KÖE YAZISI

 ESSAY - DENEME

 FICTION, FABLE - MASAL

 SCIENTIFIC BOOK - B襤L襤MSEL K襤TAP

 POETRY, POEM - 襤襤R

 COMMENT- YORUM, AÇIKLAMA

 Write a comment . She/he commended on…He likes your comment “Beautiful day today!” She mentioned you in a comment.

 

PARTS OF SENTENCES - CÜMLEN襤N ÖELER襤 :   

                                              

-NOUN, SUBSTANTIVE - 襤S襤M, AD- hope, love, luck, mankind, cosmos, çiçek, umut, evren

 -SUBJECT - ÖZNE

 -OBJECT, THING - NESNE, EY

 -VERB - F襤襤L

 -CONJUGITION - F襤襤L ÇEK襤M襤

-COMPLEMENT - TÜMLEÇ

 -PREDICATE - YÜKLEM

 

                                                                                                         -4-

 -PRONOUN - ZAM襤R, ADIL- you, she, they, who, so many, some, …sen, ben, kimisi, öteki, bu , öteki, hangisi, o, u, herkes, kimse, kendisi

 

-ADJECTIVE - SIFAT, ÖN AD - beautiful, pretty, lovely, yetikin, eski, yeil,

 

-ADVERB - ZARF, BEL襤RTEÇ - likewise, somehow, probably, perhaps, soon, always, otherwise birden, sanki, biraz, dün, yar覺n, keke, az, iyi, iyice, s覺ms覺k覺, fazla, keke, t覺pk覺, yaln覺z, geç, birkaç

 

 -PREPOSITION, PARTICLE - EDAT, 襤LGEÇ - from, among, since, however, behind, beyond, above, için, gibi, göre, dair, hakk覺nda, kadar

 

 -CONJUNCTION - BALAÇ - and, or, if, ve, veya, ya da, ayr覺ca, ancak, böylece, çünkü, ama, yine de, yani daha

 

 -INTERJECTION - ÜNLEM - please! Wow! Hi!, hey!, lütfen! ey! Merhaba!

 

 -POSTPOSITION - TAKI - göre, ile,

 AFFIX, ENDING, SUPPLEMENT - EK - ile, beri, gibi, yana, ragmen, için

 

- MODALITY, MOOD, MODE - K襤P - okursun, çal覺覺r,

çal覺t覺m, gitse,   okusa, çal覺s覺n.                                              -5-

 

 -INFINITIVE - MASTAR - oku+mak, oku+ma, bekle+yi, dur+u, anlat+mak, incele+mek

PRINCIPAL-PRIMARY TIMES - ZAMANLAR     :                                                 

 Positive - be- or -not- negative

 1-PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE – 襤MD襤K襤 ZAMAN -yap覺yorum

                                                                                                           

 Subject + BE (am is are) + or not+ Verb-ING - We are reading a book - Biz kitap okuyoruz

 

 2 – SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE – GEN襤 ZAMAN -yapar覺m

 I, you, we, they + verb / (he,she,it + verbs)

 I smell a flower - çiçek kokluyorum

 

 3 – SIMPLE PAST TENSE – D襤’L襤 GEÇM襤 ZAMAN -yapt覺m                                               

 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + verb2

 I lived in 襤stanbul- 襤stanbul’da yaam覺t覺m - imdi yaam覺yorum art覺k.

 

 4 – (SIMPLE) FUTURE TENSE (GELECEK ZAMAN) -yapaca覺m, -yapar覺m

 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + will + verb

 Tomorrow will be wonderful - yar覺n harika olacak

                                                                                                               -6-

 5 – PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (襤MD襤K襤 ZAMANIN H襤KAYES襤) -yap覺yordum

 I, he, she, it + was + verb-ing / we, you, they + were + verb-ing

 I was going to 襤stanbul - 襤stanbul’a gidiyordum.,

 I am going to do it - onu yapaca覺m (yak覺n zaman- kesin)

 I was going to do it- onu yapacakt覺m (geçmi zamanda kullan覺覺)

I was going to watch TV yesterday evening - Dün akiam TV’de maç izleyecektim.

 

6- FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE – SÜREGELEN GELECEK ZAMAN (-Yap覺yor olaca覺m)

 I, you, he, she, we, you, they + will be + verb-ing

 by this time next day I shall be going to 襤zmir- yar覺n bu zaman 襤zmir’e gidiyor olaca覺m.

 

7- FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE – SÜREGELEN GELECEK ZAMAN (-Yap覺yor olaca覺m)

 I, you, he, she, we, you, they + will be + verb-ing

 By this time next year shall be going to 襤stanbul - gelecek y覺l bu zaman istanbul’a gidiyor olaca覺m.

 

 8- FUTURE PERFECT TENSE – GELECEK-ÖNCES襤 ZAMAN (-Yapm覺 olaca覺m)

 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they + will have + verb-3

 

                                                                                                            -7-

 By this time next year I shall have gone to 襤stanbul - gelecek y覺l bu zaman 襤stanbul’a gitmi olaca覺m.

 

 9- PRESENT PERFECT TENSE – YAKIN GEÇM襤 ZAMAN (-yapt覺m -bulundum)

 I, you, we, they + have + verb3 / he, she, it + has + verb3

 I have lived in 襤stanbul - istanbul’da yaad覺m, halen de ya覺yorum.

                                                                                                     

10 – PAST PERFECT TENSE – M襤’L襤 GEÇM襤 ZAMAN -yapm覺t覺m

 I, you, we, they + had + verb3 / he, she, it + had + verb3

 I had lived in London - Londra’da yaam覺t覺m - bir zamanlar-

 

11 – PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE -mekteyim, maktay覺m

 I, you, we, they + have been + verb-ing / he, she, it + has been + verb-ing          

 I have been living in 襤zmir - izmir’de yaamaktay覺m-bir süreden beri-

 

12 – PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE –mekteydim -maktayd覺m

 I, you, we, they, he, she, it + had been + verb-ing

 I had been living in 襤stanbul - 襤stanbul’da yaamaktayd覺m - o zaman-

 

                                                           &n

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