Hello, welcome to the first lesson of Intermediate Level. Before start to talk about verbs, we have to know about "Accusative, Dative, Locative and Dative Forms and Suffixes."
In Turkish, by the suffixes that they cause a noun to meet, we can seperate verbs at four branches:
1) Accusative Verbs
2) Dative Verbs
3) Locative Verbs
4) Ablative Verbs
A verb might be an Dative Verb or might be both Dative and Ablative Verb. As we continue to talk about verbs, I will tell which verbs is what. And, by time, you are going to understand yourself that which verbs is what. Now, let´s start with Accusative Form and Suffixes:
Accusative Form, or Belirtme Durumu in Turkish, receives one of "-ı, -i, -u and -ü" suffixes. A noun can end by a vowel. When this happens, as a connection character, we are going to use "y". This will prevent confussion.
Let´s see these suffixes with a simple table:
As you see, just like other suffixes, these suffixes work according to the Vowel Harmony, too. We are going to look at last vowel and then add suffix.
Example, let´s use "door / kapı" at Accusative Mode:
Kapı, ends with a vowel, and its last vowel is "ı". I said that when a noun ended with vowel, we will use "y" as connection character.
Not, let´s look at the table. What does table say us? Which suffix are we going to use when last vowel is "ı"?
Table say: Use "ı" if last vowel is "ı"
Kapı + y + ı : Kapı is noun, y is connection character and "ı" is accusative form suffix.
Let´s use "school / okul" noun at Accusative Form:
Okul ends with a consonant, you we don´t need "y" connection character. Let´s look at table, table says that if last vowel is "u", then use "-u" suffix.
Okul + u : Okul is noun, "u" is accusative form suffix.
(Note: Do not confuse these suffixes with 3rd Singular Person Relative Suffixes. You will make this discrimination by the time :) )
I have prepared a table for you below. At this table, you can see Accusative Form usages of some nouns. I have written suffixes with dark characters, and underlined "y" connection characters:
It is too simple. My friends, don´t fear. These suffixes may be seen complicated and you may not know how to use them. But when we start to talk about verbs, you are going to understand exactly. But now, study and learn Accusative, Dative, Locative and Ablative Form suffixes.
And these are accusative forms for Personal Pronouns: