Hello, welcome to the lesson.
Verbs are very important for a language and very important for Turkish, too. Verbs are one of most detailed elements of Turkish but they are also too much funny to learn; because like a word-game, we provide verbs to gain meaning by adding some kind of suffixes nearby them.
At today´s unit, we are not going to need any suffixes, because as at the previous lessons you have seen, root of verbs are also Imperative Mood for 2nd Singular Person, "sen".
In Turkish, we generally use Imperative Mood for "sen", "siz" and "o/onlar". At the previous lesson, I have tried to tell you about the Imperative Mood for "o" pronoun. I told you that we put "-sın/-sin/-sun/-sün" suffixes which change according to Vowel Harmony.
Yap + sın : Let him/her/it do
Oku + sun : Let him/her read
Gör + sün : Let him/her/it see
Bak + sın : Let him/her/it look
Bil + sin : Let him/her know
We sorta know how vowels are selected according to Vowel Harmony, that´s why I haven´t prepared an apart table for Imperative Mood for 3rd Singular Person suffixes.
We know that "onlar" pronoun is the plural version of "o" pronoun. When we want to use Imperative Mood for 3rd Plural Pronoun, we add "-ler/-lar" (plural suffix) nearby "-sın/-sin/-sun/-sün" suffixes, which are nearby the verb root
Yap + sın + lar : Let them do
Oku + sun + lar : Let them read
Gör + sün + ler : Let them see
Bak + sın + lar : Let them look
Bil + sin + ler : Let them know
This is easy isn´t it? You may have confussed Imperative Suffix -sin/-sın/-sun/-sün with Personal Endings of "sen" (they are -sin/-sın/-sun/-sün). There is a very easy key point of that:
Personal Ending suffixes never come nearby verb roots!
Now, let´s see how we can use Accusative, Dative, Ablative and Locative Form with verbs.
In English, when you say "close the door", "door" will be the object which directly going to be effected by your activity. In this sentence, you declare that "door" is going to be "closed". In Turkish, we call Accusative Mode also "Declaration Mode" (Belirtme Durumu). Because you declare that door is going to have an action about being closed.
Close the door! I´m declaring you to close the door. So, we are going to use Accusative Mode.
Kapı + y + ı kapat!
"y" is connection character there, it connects last vowel of Kapı and accusative suffix "ı".
Let´s make the same example for "read the book."
Read the book! I´m declaring the book, I´m declaring you to read the book.
Kitab + ı oku!
We know that book means "kitap" in Turkish. But when "p" remains between two vowels, it becomes "b", as I have said at previous lessons.
"Let him/her close the door" .
"Kapı + y + ı" "kapat + sın"
Have you seen how easy it is?
"Let him close the door and let him open the window."
At second sentence, you declare "window" for "closing" activity.
Kapıyı kapatsın ve pencereyi açsın.
Aç + mak (açmak) : to open
Accusative Form > pencere + y + i (y connects last vowel "e" and suffix "i")
Let´s take a look at Dative Form:
Go to home!
At this sentence, you "direct" someone to go somewhere to another point.
From the current point >> To another point
Ev + e git!
Outside is "dışarı" in Turkish. In here, you want someone to leave its current position and come to outside.
Dışarı + y + a gel! (y connects last vowel "ı" and dative form suffix "a")
Let her come to school:
"Okul + a" "gel + sin".
You want "her" to leave her current position and come to school.
Give the book to him.
You want book to change place/hand. So, book is going to change its current position.
"Kitab + ı" "ona" "ver" !
"Ona" is dative form of "o" pronoun.
If you want subjects to protect their current positions, use locative forms:
Stay at home!
Ev + de kal!
kal + mak (kalmak): to stay.
Wait in the bus stop!
Durak + ta bekle!
bus stop: durak
bekle + mek (beklemek): to wait
If you ask for someone/something to leave their current positions but you don´t point a next position, use ablative form.
Leave the home!
Ev + den ayrıl!
ayrıl + mak (ayrılmak): to leave
Get out of room!
Oda + dan çık/ayrıl!
çık + mak: (çıkmak): to exit
I have prepared some small hints for you:
Accusative Form (Belirtme Durumu):
You declare object/subject.
Your activity declares a target.
Dative Form (Yönelme Durumu):
You direct object/subject.
You direct your activity to another point, previous point is indefinite, next point is definite and important.
Locative Form (Bulunma Durumu):
You ask object/subject to remain the current position.
Your activity keeps its current position.
Ablative Form (Ayrılma Durumu)
You ask object/subject to leave its current position without pointing a next one.
Your activity leaves current position, next position is indefinite and not important.