Pronouns 1

Personal Pronouns

Here are the Turkish translations of the personal pronouns. However, these pronouns are generally omitted in sentences since person is implied in the adjectives or the verbs in sentences. They are often used to stress the person.


i ben i am adjective ben adjective-im
you sen you are adjective sen adjective-sin



o he

she | is adjective

it /

o adjective
we biz we are adjective biz adjective-iz
you siz you are adjective siz adjective-siniz
they onlar they are adjective onlar adjective-ler


güzel --> beautiful

I am beautiful. --> Ben güzel-im. --> Güzelim. (Personal pronoun is implied)

You are beautiful. --> Sen güzel-sin. --> Güzelsin.

He/she/it is beautiful. --> O güzel. --> Güzel.

We are beautiful. --> Biz güzel-iz. --> Güzeliz.

You are beautiful. --> Siz güzel-siniz. --> Güzelsiniz.

They are beautiful. --> Onlar güzel-ler. --> Güzeller.


kötü --> bad

I am bad. --> Ben kötü-y-üm. --> Kötüyüm. (Note how kötü and -üm are connected with the fusion consonant ´y´.)

You are bad. --> Sen kötü-sün. --> Kötüsün.

He/she/it is bad. --> O kötü. --> Kötü.

We are bad. --> Biz kötü-y-üz. --> Kötüyüz.

You are bad. --> Siz kötü-siniz. --> Kötüsünüz.

They are bad. --> Onlar kötü-ler. --> Kötüler.


geliyor --> coming (present continuous tense)

I am coming. --> Ben geliyor-um. --> Geliyorum.

You are coming. --> Sen geliyor-sun. --> Geliyorsun.

He/she/it is coming. --> O geliyor. --> Geliyor.

We are coming. --> Biz geliyor-uz. --> Geliyoruz.

You are coming. --> Siz geliyor-sunuz. --> Geliyorsunuz.

They are coming. --> Onlar geliyor-lar. --> Geliyorlar.

For nouns other than these pronouns, you must use the third person case.

Marzena is beautiful. --> Marzena güzel.

Marzena is very beautiful. --> Marzena çok güzel.

Joe is bad. --> Joe kötü.

Joe is coming. --> Joe geliyor.


Demonstrative pronouns

These are the pronouns used for obects instead of people.

this bu
that (between this and that) şu
that o
these bunlar
those (between these and those) şunlar
those onlar


kitap --> book

Bu bir kitap. --> This is a book.

Şu bir kitap. --> That is a book.

O bir kitap. --> That is a book.

Bunlar kitaplar. --> These are books.

Şunlar kitaplar. --> Those are books.

Onlar kitaplar. --> Those are books.



Possessive Pronouns

Personal posessive pronouns:

my ben-im my noun ben-im noun-im
your sen-in your noun sen-in noun-in



o-n-un his

her | noun

its /

o-n-un noun-i
our biz-im our noun biz-im noun-imiz
your siz-in your noun siz-in noun-iniz
their onlar-ın their noun onlar-ın noun-leri


Notice his/her/its is o-n-un instead of o-un. Since two vowels don´t come together in Turkish, one fusion consonant is added in between. It is ´n´ in this case. Either a fusion consonant is added in between, or one of the vowels is dropped whenever a vowel is followed by another vowel. Which technique must be used changes among different rules, but it is consistent in a single rule. This will be mentioned in different lessons when necessary.


ev --> house

my house --> ben-im ev-im --> evim (personal pronoun is implied)

your house --> sen-in ev-in --> evin

his/her/its house --> o-n-in ev-i --> onun evi --> evi

our house --> biz-im ev-imiz --> evimiz

your house --> siz-in ev-iniz --> eviniz

their house --> onlar-ın ev-leri --> evleri


araba --> car

my car --> ben-im araba-m --> arabam (the suffix -im becomes -m when added after a vowel, since two vowels don´t come together in Turkish)

your car --> sen-in araba-n --> araban

his/her/its car --> o-n-in araba-s-ı --> onun arabası --> arabası (Instead of dropping one vowel, here the fusion consonant ´s´ is added between vowels since the suffix is only a single vowel.)

our car --> biz-im araba-mız --> arabamız

your car --> siz-in araba-nız --> arabanız

their car --> onlar-ın araba-ları --> arabaları


For nouns other than these pronouns, always the third person form is used.

Gizem´s house --> Gizem´in evi

Gizem´s car --> Gizem´in arabası

My mother´s house --> Annemin evi


Demonstartive posessive pronouns:

of this bu-n-un
of that (between this and that) şu-n-un
of that o-n-un
of these bunlar-ın
of those (between these and those) şunlar-ın
of those onlar-ın


Bunun evi --> The house of this

Şunun evi --> The house of that

Onun evi --> The house of that

Bunların evleri --> The house of these.

Şunların evleri --> The house of those.

Onların evleri --> The house of those.


For nouns other than these pronouns, always the third person form is used.

The room of the house --> Evin odası

Cat´s food --> Kedinin yemeği



Reflexive Pronouns

The way reflexive pronouns are constructed in Turkish is very similar to the way we do it in English. The Turkish word for self is kendi. The reflexive pronouns hence are as follows:


myself kendi-im kendim
yourself kendi-in kendin



kendi-si kendisi
ourselves kendi-imiz kendimiz
yourselves kendi-iniz kendiniz
themselves kendi-leri kendileri

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