In Turkish, a noun has 5 fundamental states, produced using suffixes, that correspond to meanings of some prepositions in English. It is not necessary to learn these as the states of nouns, but learning these suffixes is important since they are very commonly used.
|State ||Meaning |
|Nothing state (no suffix) ||Just the plain noun. |
|-i state ||Marks the noun as the subject of an action. |
|-e state ||Adds the meaning of direction (very similar to the proposition to) |
|-de state ||Adds the meaning of position (Used for the prepositions in, at, on) |
|-den state ||Adds the meaning of from, used for this preposition |
An important thing to note here is the use of the -i form. It is used to denote the subject of an action, and adds the meaning of "being known, specified" just as the meaning given by "the". This will be more clear after looking at the sentences below. (bir --> one, kedi --> cat, gördüm --> I saw)
Bir kedi gördüm. --> I saw a cat. (Note that although cat is the object of the action here, the -i form of kedi is not used since it is not known, i.e. it is a cat, not the cat)
Kediyi gördüm. --> I saw the cat. (Note that kedi has the suffix -i, but the two -i's are separated by the fusion consonant 'y'.)
Now, example sentences for all the cases.
The pen is on the table. --> Kalem masada.
Joe is at school. --> Joe okulda.
Your mother is in that room. --> Annen o odada.