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Turkish Grammar-5: Nouns-2.b

D) Bulunma hâli (-de,da,te,ta)

 

sözlük (dictionary)

çanta (bag)

çanta+de(location)--->çantada

Sözlük çantada. (The dictionary is in the bag)

 

tatil (holiday)

tatil+ler(plural)+de(location)

yaln覺zca, sadece=only, merely, just

Buraya yaln覺zca tatillerde geliriz. (We come here only on holidays)

 

gelecek (future)

proje (project)

imdi (now)

gelecek+de(location)-->gelecekte

Bu proje imdi deil, gelecekte gerçekletirilecek. (This project will be realised in the future, not now.)

 

inaat (construction)

inaat+da(location)-->inaatta

Day覺m inaatta çal覺覺yor. (My uncle works at the construction)

 

sen (you (singular))

sen+de(location)-->sende

Kitab覺m sende mi? (Is my book at you?)

 

Facebook (no need to translate :D )

Facebook+da(location)-->Facebook´ta

her (every), gün (day)

Her gün Facebook´tas覺n. (You are at Facebook everyday.)

 

E) Ayr覺lma hâli (-den,dan,ten,tan)

 

dans (dance)

ekip (equip)

Slovakya (Slovakia)

Slovakya+dan(ablative) --> Slovakya´dan

Dans ekibi Slovakya´dan geliyormu. ((they say) The dance equip comes from Slovakia)

 

vazgeçmek (to quit, to abandon, to give up)

komak (to run)

komak+dan(ablative)-->komaktan

Komaktan vazgeçtim ve yürüdüm. (I gave up running and I walked)

örenmek (to learn)

örenmek+den(ablative)-->örenmekten

Türkçe örenmekten vazgeçmedim. (I didn´t give up learning Turkish)

al覺kanl覺k (habit)

al覺kanl覺k+den(ablative)-->al覺kanl覺ktan

Bu al覺kanl覺ktan vazgeçmen gerek. (You have to give up this habit)

 

site (site)

site+den-->siteden

Türkçeyi bu siteden öreniyorlar. (They are learning Turkish on this site.) (direct: ......from this site)

 

pazar (1sunday, 2market place)

pazar+dan(ablative)

bir (1one, 2a/an, 3same, 4different, 5.... 6..... ...)

kilo (kilo)

elma (apple)

Pazardan bir kilo elma ald覺m. (I bought a kilo of apples from the market place)

 

haber (news)

olay (event)

olay+dan(ablative)--->olaydan

Bu olaydan haberin var m覺? (Are you aware of this event?) (directly: Have you got news from this event?)

 

nefret etmek (to hate)

ben (I)

ben+den(ablative)-->benden

Benden nefret ediyor. (He hates me) (direct: He hates from me)

 

korkmak (to be afraid of, to fear)

rüzgar (wind)

gece (night)

rüzgar+dan(ablative)-->rüzgardan

Çocukken gece rüzgardan korkard覺m. (I used to be afraid of the wind at night while I was child) (direct: As I was child, I used to fear from the wind at night)

 

özür dilemek (to apologise)

biz (we)

biz+den-->bizden

Eer kendini suçlu hissediyorsa, bizden niye özür dilemedi? (Why didn´t he apologise to us if he feels himself guilty?) (direct: ..... apologize from us ......)

 

Some prepositions which are used with ablative case:

 

1) ...  yüzünden, -den dolay覺 (because of, due to, owing to ...)

Although they are in the same task, "-den dolay覺" is used much more than "yüzünden". What´s more, if you want, use always "-den dolay覺". It is more absolute so as not to make mistake.

 

iptal olmak=iptal edilmek (to be cancelled)

maç (match)

yamur (rain)

Maç, yamur yüzünden iptal edildi (The match has been cancelled due to the rain)

=Maç, yamurdan dolay覺 iptal edildi.

 

ben (I)

benim (my)

Benim yüzümden geç kald覺lar. (They are late because me)

(this pattern is done by "yüzünden/yüzümden", not by "-den dolay覺")

 

gürültü (noise)

ders (lesson)

ders çal覺mak, derse çal覺mak (to study lesson)

gürültü+den dolay覺

Gürültüden dolay覺 ders çal覺amad覺m. (I couldn´t study lesson because/owing to/due to the noise)

 

çal覺mak (1to work, 2to study)

çok (1many, 2very, 3much)

hastalanmak (to get ill)

çal覺mak+dan dolay覺

Çok çal覺maktan dolay覺 hastaland覺; birkaç gün dinlenecek. (He got ill because of working very much; he will have a rest for a few days.)

 

Even if you don´t use "dolay覺", it can be understood.

Çok çal覺maktan hastaland覺.

Gürültüden ders çal覺amad覺m.

....vs. vs.

 

2) -den beri/-den bu yana (since, for)

 

"-den beri" is used much more than "bu yana".

 

"beri" is pronunced as "beeri"

 

kar (snow)

devam etmek (1to continue, 2to go on)

dün (yesterday)

dün+den beri

Kar dünden beri devam ediyor. (The snow has been continuing since yesterday)

 

sabah (morning)

sabah+den beri

Sabahtan beri buraday覺z. (We are here since the morning)

 

on dört (fourteen)

y覺l (year)

y覺l+den beri/den bu yana

Bu festival on dört y覺ldan beri ayn覺 yerde yap覺l覺yor.=.....on dört y覺ldan bu yana... (This festival has been being done in the same place for fourteen years.)

 

2005 (iki bin be)

Avusturya (Austria, Österreich)

Avusturya+a(dative)

iki bin be+den beri/den bu yana

Avusturya´ya 2005´ten bu yana gitmedim. (I have never been/gone to Austria since 2005)

 

F) Tamlayan hâli (-in,覺n,un,ün)

 

let me remind: if the word ends with vowel : -nin,n覺n,nun,nün

(remember combinative letters)

 

oda (room)

müdür (director)

müdür+in(genitive)-->müdürün

Bu oda müdürün. (This room is the director´s one.)

 

kim (who)

kim+in(genitive)-->kimin

O arabalar kimin? (Whose are those cars?)

 

herkes (everybody, everyone)

herkes+in(genitive)-->herkesin

kütüphane (library)

Kütüphane herkesin. (The library is everybody´s one)

 

hangi (which)

bilet (ticket)

yolcu(traveller)

yolcu+in-->yolcu+un-->yolcunun

Bilet hangi yolcunun? (Of which traveller is the ticket?)

 

baba (father)

baba+m(possessive of 1st singular)+in(genitive)

gözlük (eyeglasses)

Gözlük babam覺n (The eyeglasses are my father´s one.)


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