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Turkish Grammar-5: Nouns-3

 

What are the personal suffixes?

Like you know, Turkish is a language that almost everything are done by the suffixes. We also use these (personal) suffixes so as to show the subject of the sentence. With a clearer expression: to make something predicate. By the way, the order of the sentence is Subject+Complement+Predicate.

 

I think all of you know from your own languages what is called "personal pronouns". The personal pronouns must be always used in most of your languages, but there is no need like that in Turkish. You see the sentences can be made by the personal or possessive suffixes so easily even if you don´t use the pronouns. Therefore you need not use the personal pronouns unless any ambiguity happens, but you always must use the suffixes.

 

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN in English THE 1ST TYPE OF PERSONAL SUFFIX in English
ben I -im, -覺m, -um, -üm I am
sen you (singular) -sin, -s覺n, -sun, -sün you are
o he/she/it - he/she/it is
biz we -iz, -覺z, -uz, -üz we are
siz you (plural or respect) -siniz, -s覺n覺z, -sunuz, -sünüz you are
onlar they - , -ler/-lar they are

 

deil (not)

 

deil + im ---> (ben) ... deilim = i am not

deil +sin ---> (sen) ... deilsin = you aren´t

deil + - ----> (o)    ... deil = he / she / it isn´t

deil + iz --> (biz)   ... deiliz = we aren´t

deil +siniz--> (siz)   ... deilsiniz= you aren´t

deil +ler ---> deiller = they aren´t

onlar ... deil*

* because it sounds too odd to use "-ler" continuously. If you want to say "onlar ... deiller", it may be correct as well but we usually don´t prefer to use the second "-ler".

 

uzun (1long, 2tall)

 

(ben) uzunum (I am tall)

(sen) uzunsun (You are tall)

(o) uzun  (He/she/it is tall)

(biz) uzunuz (We are tall)

(siz) uzunsunuz (You are tall)

uzunlar (They are tall)

onlar  uzun (They are tall)

 

(ben) uzun deilim (I am not tall)

(sen) uzun deilsin (You aren´t tall)

(o)  uzun deil (He/she/it is) not tall)

(biz)  uzun deiliz (We aren´t tall)

(siz)  uzun deilsiniz (You aren´t tall)

uzun deiller (They aren´t tall)

onlar uzun deil (They aren´t tall)

 

çok (1very, too ,2much, 3many)

çok uzun (very tall)

 

Çok uzunsun (You are too tall)

Çok uzun deilim (I am not too tall)

 

I shan´t write the pronouns more, because i think you understood it isn´t necessary everytime.

 

Try to remember combinative letters. We are going toa use "y".

 

örenci (student)

 

örenciyim (I am student)

örencisin (You are student)

örenci (He/she is) student.)

örenciyiz (We are students)

örencisiniz (You are students)

örenciler ((They are) students)

onlar örenci

 

örenci deilim (i am not student)

örenci deilsin (you aren´t student)

örenci deil ((he/she is) not student)

örenci deiliz (we aren´t students)

örenci deilsiniz (you aren´t students)

örenci deiller (they aren´t students)

onlar örenci deil

 

öretmen (teacher)

Ben örenci deilim, öretmenim. = I am teacher, not student.

Ben örenci deil, öretmenim.

Ben öretmenim; örenci deil.

 

sayg覺 (respect)

sayg覺l覺 (respectful) (direct: the one who has respect)

 

sayg覺l覺y覺m (I am respectful)

sayg覺l覺s覺n (you are respectful)

sayg覺l覺 (he/she/it is respectful)

sayg覺l覺y覺z (we are respectful)

sayg覺l覺s覺n覺z (you are respectful)

sayg覺l覺lar (they are respectful)

onlar sayg覺l覺

 

sayg覺l覺 deilim

sayg覺l覺 deilsin

sayg覺l覺 deil

sayg覺l覺 deiliz

sayg覺l覺 deilsiniz

sayg覺l覺 deiller (onlar sayg覺l覺 deil)

 

 

her (every), bütün (all, whole)

din (religion)

din+e(dative)

din+ler(plural)+e(dative)

Her dine sayg覺l覺y覺z. (We are respectful to every religion)

Bütün dinlere sayg覺l覺y覺z. (We are respectful to all the religions)

If you also want to use the pronouns:

Biz her dine sayg覺l覺y覺z.

Biz bütün dinlere sayg覺l覺y覺z.

 

kim (who)

kimim?..=who am i?

kimsin?.=who are you?

kim?.....=who is he/she?

kimiz?...=who are we?

kimsiniz?=who are you?

kimler? (onlar kim?)=who are they?

 

doktor (doctor)

doktorum.......=i am doctor

doktor deilim=i am not doctor

doktorsun......=you are doctor.

doktor deilsin=you aren´t doctor.

doktor............=(he/she is) doctor.

doktor deil.....=(he/she is) not doctor.

doktoruz.........=we are doctor.

doktor deiliz...=we aren´t doctor.

doktorsunuz....=you are doctor.

doktor deilsiniz=you aren´t doctor.

doktorlar=they are doctors

doktor deiller / onlar doktor deil = they aren´t doctors

 

ama, fakat (but)

Ben doktorum ama sen deilsin. (I´m doctor but you aren´t.)

Onlar uzun ama ben deilim. (They are tall but I am not.)

Onlar uzun deil ama ben uzunum. (They aren´t tall but I am tall)

 

Like you see, it requires using the pronouns while doing comparison.

 

okul (school)

okul + de (locative) ---> okulda = at the school

 

okul+da(loc.)+im(personal suffix of 1st singular) --> okulday覺m

 

okulday覺m.......=i am at the school

okulda deilim.=i am not at the school

okuldas覺n........=you are at the school

okulda deilsin.=you aren´t at the school

okulda............=(he/she/it is) at the school

okulda deil.....=(he/she/it is) not at the school

okulday覺z.........=we are at the school

okulda deiliz...=we aren´t at the school

okuldas覺n覺z.......=you are at the school

okulda deilsiniz=you aren´t at the school

okuldalar...........=they are at the school

okulda deiller....=they aren´t at the school

 

nere (which place, where)

nere+de(locative) ---> nerede

 

nere+de+im --> neredeyim

neredeyim?...=where am i_

neredesin?....=where are you?

nerede?........=where (is he/she/t)

neredeyiz?....=where are we?

neredesiniz?..=where are you?

neredeler?.....=where are theyy?

 

How to ask question?

 

"mi" : It becomes "m覺, mu or mü" according to vowel harmony. It is always written seperately from the word. But if there is a interrogative word, there is no need to "mi". (e.g : ne(what), niye(why), nere(where), kim(who) etc.)

 

mi + im----> miyim?...=am I?

mi + sin---> misin?....=are you?

mi + - ----> mi?........=is he/she/it?

mi + iz----> miyiz?.....=are we?

mi + siniz-> misiniz?...=are you?

ler mi?----> misiniz?...=are they?

onlar ... mi?

 

salak (stupid)

salak m覺y覺m?.= am i stupid?

salak m覺s覺n?..= are you stupid?

salak m覺?......= is he/she/it stupid?

salak m覺y覺z?..= are we stupid?

salak m覺s覺n覺z?= are you stupid?

salaklar m覺? / onlar salak m覺? = are they stupid?

 

let´s examplify it more detailedly :

 

ev (house, home)

ev+de(location)-->evde

 

evdeyim (i´m at home)

evdesin (you are at home)

evde (he/she/it is at home)

evdeyiz (we are at home)

evdesiniz (you are at home)

evdeler (they are at home)

/onlar evde

/onlar evdeler

 

evde deilim (i am not at home)

evde deilsin (you aren´t at home)

evde deil ((he/she/it is) not at home)

evde deiliz (we aren´t at home)

evde deilsiniz (You a ren´t at home.

evde deiller (They aren´t at home)

/onlar evde deil

/onlar evde deiller

onlar evdeler deil

onlar deil evdeler   vs. vs...

 

evde miyim? (am i at home?)

evde misin? (are you at home?)

evde mi? (is he/she/it at home?)

evde miyiz? (are we at home?)

evde misiniz? (are you at home?)

evdeler mi? (are they at home?)

/onlar evde mi?

/onlar evdeler mi?

onlar evde miler?

 

evde deil miyim? (am i not at home?)

evde deil misin? (aren´t you at home?)

evde deil mi? ((is he/she/it) not at home?)

evde deil miyiz? (aren´t we at home?)

evde deil misiniz? (aren´t you at home?)

evde deiller mi? (aren´t they at home?)

/onlar evde deil mi?

/onlar evde deiller mi?

onlar evde deiller miler

onlar evdeler deiller mi

 

niye (why)

Niye evde deilsin? = Why aren´t you at home?

It is wrong to say "Niye evde deil misin?". Don´t do this, it is wrong. "niye" is already an interrogative adverb.

Elinde ne var? = What are there in your hand?

It is wrong to say "Elinde ne var m覺?". "ne" is already an interrogative adverb.

Because the interogative adverbs already express the question meaning.

 

more examples:

 

ve(and)

d覺ar覺 (outside, outdoor)

d覺ar覺+de(location)

Annem ve babam evde deil(/ler), d覺ar覺da(/lar).=My mother and father are outside, not at home.

 

dosya (1file, 2file folder)

dosya+ler(plural)-->dosyalar

bu (this)

bunlar (these)

Sana gereken dosyalar bunlar deil. (The files you need aren´t these)

 

yaln覺zca, sadece (only, just, merely)

aka (joke)

bir (1a/an, 2one, 3....4.... etc.)

Bu yaln覺zca bir aka. (This is just a joke).

 

haber (news)

haber+ler(plural)-->haberler

iyi (good, well)

ne yaz覺k ki, maalesef (unfortunately)

Haberler iyi deil; ne yaz覺k ki bugün de burada kalmam覺z lâz覺m. (The news aren´t good; unfortunately we must stay here today too)

 

aptal (stupid, fool)

Bana yalan söyleme, ben aptal deilim!!! (Don´t tell me lies, I am not fool!!!)

 

k覺rk (forty)

be (five)

k覺rk be (forty five)

lira (monetary unit of Turkey)

k覺rk be lira (forty five liras)

ayakkab覺 (shoe)

 

Bu ayakkab覺lar k覺rk be lira. (These shoes cost forty five liras) (direct: .... shoes are ....)


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