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the suffix -dir - 1

In many resources, "-dir" is shown as the personal suffix of 3rd singular. But, indeed, this is not correct. The 3rd singular person has no personal suffix.


One of the tasks of "-dir" is to express formal certainties. The aim is to express something in a formal way. You add "-dir" if you want to tell about something in a formal speech. You see it in this task at the official notifications, in the encyclopedical texts etc.


Türkiye (Turkey), bakent (capital city), Ankara (our capital city)


Türkiye+in(genitive) bakent+i(possessive)-->Türkiye´nin bakenti (the capital of Turkey)

Türkiye´nin bakenti Ankara. (The capital of Turkey is Ankara.)

That is a normal sentence. But if you see this knowledge -for example- in an encyclopedia, you probably see in this type:

Türkiye´nin bakenti Ankara´d覺r.

Because a formal knowledge is being given there.


banka (bank), kapan覺 (closing, shutdown), saat (1hour, 2clock, 3watch)


kapan覺 saat+i(poss.)----------------->kapan覺 saati (the shutdown time)

bankam覺z覺n kapan覺 saati (the shutdown time of our bank)


Bankam覺z覺n kapan覺 saati 17:00´d覺r. (The shutdown time of our bank is 17:00 o´clock.)

Assume that you saw this on the wall of a bank office. Using "-dir" because it´s an official notification.


böyle (such, like this), kullan覺c覺 (user), bulmak (to find)


böyle bir kullan覺c覺 (a user like this)

bul+覺n(passive)+ama(negative ability)+d覺(simp.past)-->bulunamad覺 (it couldn´t be found)

bul+覺n(passive)+ama(negative ability)+d覺+d覺r--------->bulunamad覺d覺r

bul+覺n(passive)+ama(negative ability)+m覺+d覺r-------->bulunamam覺t覺r (it couldn´t have been found)


Böyle bir kullan覺c覺 bulunamam覺t覺r. (No user like this have been found)

For example, you saw this on Facebook. It´s a formal notification as well.


aile (family), kat (1floor, 2storey), yukar覺 (upward, upside)


aile kat+m覺z---------------->aile kat覺m覺z (our family floor)

yukar覺+da(locative)--------->yukar覺da (it´s upstairs)


Aile kat覺m覺z yukar覺dad覺r. (Our family floor is upstairs.)

Imagine that you saw this notification in a restaurant.


Türkiye (Turkey), cumhuriyet (republic), 1923 ((by letters) bin dokuz yüz yirmi üç), kurmak (to found)


Türkiye cumhuriyet+i(possessive)------------>Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (the Republic of Turkey)

1923+de(locative)-------------------------->1923´te (in 1923)

bin dokuz yüz yirmi üç+de

kur+il(passive)+di(simple past)--------------->kuruldu (it was founded)

kur+il(passive)+di(simple past)+dir----------->kuruldudur



Türkiye Cumhuriyeti 1923´te kuruldu. (The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923.)

this is a normal sentence, it´s not belonged to a special place.

Imagine you saw this knowledge in an encyclopedia:

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti 1923´te kurulmutur. (The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923.)


M覺s覺r (Egypt), piramit (pyramid), gizem (mystery), bugün (today), bile (even), korumak (1to protect, 2to keep, 3..4..)


piramitler (pyramids)

M覺s覺r piramitler+i----------->M覺s覺r piramitleri (the pyramids of Egypt)

gizem+leri(poss.)+i(acc.)--->gizemlerini (their mystery (acc.))

bugün bile (even today)

korumak+da(locative)------>korumakta (it is keeping)


M覺s覺r piramitleri, gizemlerini bugün bile koruyor.  (The pyramids of Egypt have been keeping their mystery even today.)

=M覺s覺r piramitleri, gizemlerini bugün bile korumakta.

If you want to tell about this knowledge by a formal speech:

M覺s覺r piramitleri, gizemlerini bugün bile korumaktad覺r.


yang覺n (fire (event that fire greatens and burns many places)), zil (bell), gereksiz (unnecessary), kullanmak (to use), ceza (punishment), cezaland覺rmak (to punish)


yang覺n zil+i(poss.)----------------->yang覺n zili (the fire bell)

yang覺n zil+i(poss.)+i(accusative)--->yang覺n zilini (the fire bell (acc.))

kullan+an(verbal adjective)+lar----->kullananlar (the ones who use/used)

ceza+la+n+d覺r+il(pass.)+acak(future)>cezaland覺r覺lacak[lar] ([they] he will be punished)


Yang覺n zilini gereksiz kullananlar cezaland覺r覺lacak. (People who use the fire bell unnecessarily will be punished.)

Assume you saw this inside a train or on the wall of an work place. They can be regarded as official notifications, too:

Yang覺n zilini gereksiz kullananlar cezaland覺r覺lacakt覺r. (People who use the fire bell unnecessarily will be punished.)


Dünya (the Earth, world), Güne (the Sun), yak覺n (near, close), üçüncü (third), gezegen (planet)


Dünya, Güne´e en yak覺n üçüncü gezegen. (The Earth is the nearest third planet to the Sun.)

If you see this knowledge in an encyclopedia or another texts:

Dünya, Güne´e en yak覺n üçüncü gezegendir.

Because a formal certainty is being told in a formal way.

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View all advanced level lessons in this class - The GRAMMAR Garden OF MEHMET111

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