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Lesson5: Combining Letters (N, S, , Y) - 1

In Turkish, it is an odd situation that two vowels come together in a word. Turks have not

got used to use two vowels one after another: aa, ee, ei, a覺 etc. We use the combining

letters to make the pronunciation easier. For us, the pronunciation becomes

easier when a consonant is brought between two vowels.


We use four letters to tie two vowels: N, S, , Y. We refer to these letters "kaynat覺rma

harfleri" in Turkish.


LETTERS N S Y                                                                  
USAGE SITUATIONS genitive clause vowel-ended noun + possessive -i distributive adjectives in the situations except these  
  for the positional endings* after the possessive suffix of the 3rd people        
  bu, u, o        

*positional endings: the suffixes of the accusative, dative, locative, genitive and ablative





Two things is needed to use "s" as combining letter.

1) A noun that ends with a vowel.

2) The possessive suffix of the 3rd singular and plural.

vowel S  -i which is possesive



Annesi benim ilkokul öretmenim. (His mother is my teacher of primary school.)


ilkokul : primary school

öretmen : teacher


annesi :

e s i


It is a noun that ends with a vowel: e. If "s" wasn´t be brought, the word would be

"annei" and this would be so strange for a Turk.



Arkada覺m覺n dedesi geçen y覺l öldü. (My friend´s grandfather passed away last year.)


arkada : friend

dede : grandfather

geçen : last

y覺l : year

ölmek : to die, to pass away


dedesi :

e s i


It is a noun that ends with a vowel: e. If "s" wasn´t be brought, the word would be

"dedei" and this would be so strange for a Turk.




Almancas覺 da iyi, bu yüzden sizinle onun gelmesi daha yararl覺 olur. (He can also speak German well, therefore it is more useful that he comes with you. (purely: His German is good as well,...))


Almanca : German language

iyi : good

bu yüzden : therefore

gelmek : to come

yararl覺 : useful


Almancas覺 :

The last letter is a vowel: A. If we don´t bring "s", it becomes "Almanca覺" and this is too strange for our ears.



Japonya´daki tsunaminin videosunu izledik, gerçekten felâketmi. (We have watched the video of the tsunami that was in Japan, it´s really catastrophe.)


y覺l : year

tsunami : tsunami

video : video

izlemek : 1to watch, 2to follow

gerçekten : really (purely: from the truth)

felâket : 1misfortune, 2catastrophe


videosu :

o s u


The last letter is a vowel: O. If you directly write "videou", it´s too unmeaningful and

strange for Turk to hear.



Elindeki nergisin kokusunu çok sevdim. (I liked the smell of the daffodil that in your

hand very much.)


el : hand

nergis : daffodil

koku : smell

sevmek : 1to love, 2to like


kokusu :

u s u

The last letter is a vowel : U. As possessive suffix, if you bring just U, it would be

"kokuu" and that is too unmeaningful and strange to hear.



u an içeride halk müzii korosunun konseri var. (Now there is a concert of the folk music chorus inside.)


u an / u anda : at the moment, now

içeri : inside

halk : people, folk

müzik : music

koro : chorus

var : there is/are.



o s u

THe last letter is a vowel: O. If you bring the possessive U lonely, the word would take a shape "korou" and this is unacceptable.



Köelerdeki otlar覺 kesince bahçenin görüntüsü daha güzel oldu. (When we have cut the plants in the corners, the view of the garden became more beautiful.)


köe : corner

ot : plant

kesmek : to cut

bahçe : garden

görüntü : sight, view

güzel : beautiful, nice

olmak : 1to be, 2.............4to become,..............9....



ü s ü

The last letter is Ü. If you bring the possessive Ü directly, the word would be "görüntüü" and this is unacceptable.





ne (what)

ne + i (possessive) --------------------------> nesi (what of him), as alternative : neyi

neyi and nesi are exactly same about the possessional meaning.


su (water)

su + u (possessive) --------------------------> suyu (its water)

susu can never be used.





This letter is just used for the numbers when we use them as distributive adjectives: per, each.


If you want to make a number a distributive adjective, you add "-er" to it.


her : every


bir + er --------------------------------> birer (one per head)

Birer bira içtik. (We drank beer per head. / Each of us drank one glass/bottle/etc. of beer.)


bira : beer

içmek : to drink


iki + er ---------------------------------> ikier (two per head) 

Masalarda ikier kiilik yer var. (There are vacancies for per two people in the tables.)


masa : table

kii : person

yer : 1floor, 2earth, 3vacancy, 4the ideal time


"襤kier" can´t be used, this is extremely unmeaningful. "" must added between 襤 and E to make the word "iki (2)" a distributive number.


Projeye her liseden yirmi alt覺ar örenci kat覺lacak. (Twenty six students from per high school shall join the project.)


proje : project

lise : high school

örenci : student

kat覺lmak : to join


alt覺. The last letter is a vowel : I. One must pronounce "" before "-ar", otherwise one can´t make this number any distributive adjective.




1) N is usually connected with the positional endings: accusative case, dative case, ablative case, other ones etc.

note: About these cases, I will tell in another lessons. I shan´t go into details about these cases in this lesson.


Let´s imagine a word that it has got taken the possessive suffix of 3rd singular or plural.

For example: kol (arm), kol+u(possessive)----->kolu (his/her/its arm)


Kolunu kap覺ya çarpt覺. (He bumped his arm on the door.)


kol : arm

kap覺 : door

çarpmak : 1to bump, to hit, 2to multiply, 3to steal



Because there has been a possessive suffix of the 3rd singular, N must be pronounced between two vowels; because the second suffix is a positional ending as well.


Geçen y覺l arabas覺n覺 satt覺 ve imdi de motorunu satmay覺 düünüyor. (Last year he sold his car and he is thinking about selling his motorbike now.)


önceki y覺l, geçen y覺l : last year

araba : car

satmak : to sell

ve : and

imdi : now

motor, motorsiklet : motorbike

düünmek : to think


araba + 覺 (possessive)+ 覺 (accusative)


"S" resulted from the fact that "araba" is a noun that ends with a vowel and "I" is a possessive suffix. N resulted from the fact that a positional ending was brought after the suffix I which is possessive.


motor + u (possessive) + u (accusative)


N resulted from the fact that a positional ending was brought after the suffix U which is possessive.


Örencilerin yar覺s覺n覺n düük notlar almas覺 okul müdür olarak beni endilendiriyor. (It is getting the wind up me as a school director, that half of the students got low points.)


yar覺* : half

düük : low

not : 1note, 2mark (as a result of an exam)

almak : 1to take, 2to buy, 3to receive, 4to get

endielendirmek : to put/get the wind up


yar覺 + 覺 (possessive) + 覺n (genitive)


S hinges on the fact that the noun  that ends with a vowel has taken the possessive suffix of 3rd perso覺n. I is the possessive of the 3rd person and a positional ending has come after it. N must be pronounced.


*the difference of "yar覺m" and "yar覺"

yar覺m means a half quantity of the "one" thing. and it is used as an adjective.

yar覺m ekmek (half a bread)

yar覺m saat (half an hour)

yar覺m bardak su (half a glass of water)

yar覺m b覺rakmak (not to complete (purely: to leave half))

yar覺m limon (half a lemon)

yar覺m gün (half a day)

yar覺m kilometre (half an kilometre)


yar覺 means a half quantity of the many things.

örencilerin yar覺s覺 (half of the students)

kitaplar覺n yar覺s覺 (half of the books)

yar覺m覺z (half of us) (yar覺 + m覺z)

yar覺 Türk yar覺 Frans覺z (half Turk and half French)

yar覺 Alman yar覺 Rus (half German and half Russian)

orman覺n yar覺s覺 (half of the forest)

caddenin yar覺s覺 (half of the street)


Ofisinden bazen hiç ç覺kmazd覺, sürekli çal覺覺rd覺. (He sometimes never used to go out his office and he used to work continuously.)


ofis : office

bazen : sometimes

hiç : never

ç覺kmak : 1to go out, 2to ascend, ........5to flirt, 6to be understood, 7.....

sürekli : continuously


ofis + i (possessive) + den (ablative)


N must be pronounced between 襤 and DEN because 襤 is the possessive suffix ofthe 3rd person and DEN is a positional ending.


Evine gitti. (He went his home.) (purely: He went to his home.)


ev : house, home

gitmek : to go


ev + i (possessive) + e (dative)


襤çinde bir ey var m覺? (Is there anything inside it?) (purely: ... in its interior)


iç + i (possessive) + de (locative) -------> içinde (


N must be pronounced between 襤 and E because 襤 is the possessive suffix of the 3rd person and E is a positional ending.



bu (this)

o (that)

u (this/that) [nearer than "o", further than "this" ; or about what are going to be explained; or about something that is near, usually well nigh synonym of "bu".]


bu + da (locative) ------------> bunda (in/on/at this)

bu + u (accusative) -----------> bunu (this (acc.))

o + u (accusative) ------------> onu (1that (acc.), 2him/her/it (acc.))

o + un (genitive)---------------> onun (of it/him/her/that | his, her, its, of that)



Onu bana verir misin? (Can you give me this?)

Onun rengi ne? (What is its colour?)

Bunun anlam覺n覺 bilmiyorum. (I don´t know, what does this mean. (purely: I don´t know the meaning of this.)) (bu + un(genitive))

Bundan hiç bahsetmedi. (He has never talked about this.)

Ona çok güzel bir hediye alaca覺m. (I shall buy a very nice gift for him.) (purely: ...to him)


I shall tell about Y in the next lesson by explaining the positional endings.

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