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Turkish Grammar-3 : Consonants-1








After a small vocabulary part, let´s come to our real matter.


YUMUŞAK ğ, j, l, m, n, r, v, y, z b, c, d, g
SERT f, h, s, ş p, ç, t, k


You see the incontinuant soft consonants above. What are they? B, C, D and G. Also you see the incontinuant hard consonants: P, Ç, T, K


Imagine a word. It ends with an incontinuant hard.

And imagine a suffix that starts with an incontinuant soft. Add that suffix to that word. The incontinuant soft consonant hardens.

The event is just this! Don´t exaggerate. Besides, try to remember the major vowel harmony. Try to also remember the minor vowel harmony, because they are necessary, too. You will always need them.


I will explain these by the example suffixes:

a) Bulunma Hâl Eki (Location Case (in/at/on)) (-de/-da/-te/-ta)

hastane (hospital)


If we wrote "da", the major vowel harmony wouldn´t keep on, like you remember.


Kim hastanede? (Who is at the hospital?)


orman (forest)

tehlike (danger)


Ormandaki tüm hayvanlar tehlikede. (All the animals in the forest are in a danger)


koltuk (armchair)

koltuk+da-->koltukta=in the bed/on the bed

d-->t (da-->ta)


Ablam koltukta değil (My older sister isn´t on the armchair)


kitap (book)

Last letter? "p": incontinuant hard.

kitap+da-->kitapta=in the book


Bunu o kitapta okudum. (I have read this on that book)


sonuç (result)

Last letter? "ç": incontinuant hard

sonuç+da-->sonuçta=eventually, on the upshot (direct: in the result)


Sonuçta bu yalnızca bir oyun. (This is just a game eventually.)


sepet (basket)

t: incontinuant hard

sepet+de-->sepette=in the basket


Elmalar sepette. (The apples are in the basket)


sınıf (1class, 2classroom)

f: continuant hard

sınıf+da-->sınıfta=in the classroom


Sınıfta kaç kişi var? (How many people are there in the classroom?)


Bitlis (a city in the Eastern Anatolia)

s: continuant hard



Dayım Bitlis´te (My uncle is in Bitlis)


Why apostrophe? City names are a kind of proper nouns. As long as we don´t bring derivative suffixes, apostrophe requires.


yarış (race, racing)

ş: continuant hard



Yarıştaki kaza çok tehlikeli bir kazaydı ama sürücüye bir şey olmadı. (The crash in the race was a too dangerous crash but nothing happened to the driver.)


Semih (a Turkish male name)

h: continuant hard



Kitabım Semih´te (My book is at Semih)


Why apostrophe? Because person names too are proper noun.


gece (night)

üç (three)

sokak (street)


ç is an incontinuant hard consonant. d is an incontinuant soft consonant.


k is an incontinuant hard consonant. d is an incontinuant soft consonant.


Gece üçte sokakta ne yapıyordunuz? (What were you doing at the street at three o´clock in the night?) 


b) -ce

b.a) Dil isimleri (Language names)

Gürcistan (Georgia)

Gürcü (Georgian (nation))

Gürcü+ce-->Gürcüce (Georgian (language))

İngiltere (England)

İngiliz (English (nation))

İngiliz+ce-->İngilizce (English (language))

Rusya (Russia)

Rus (Russian (nation))

Rus+ca-->Rua (Russian (language))

s: continuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

Arnavutluk (Albania)

Arnavut (Albanian (nation))

Arnavut+ca-->Arnavua (Albanian (language))

t: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

Hırvatistan (Croatia)

Hırvat (Croatian (nation))

Hırvat+ca-->Hırvaa (Croatian (language))

t: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

TÜRKİYE (Turkey)

TÜRK (Turkish (nation))

TÜRK+CE-->Türe (Turkish (language))

k: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

Norveç (Norway)

Norveç+ce-->Norveççe (Norwegian (language))

İsveç (Sweden)

İsveç+ce--->İsveççe (Swedish (language))

ç: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

Sırbistan (Serbia)

Sırp (Serbian (nation))

Sırp+ca----->Sıra (Serbian (language))

p: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft


b.b) Yaklaşıklık (Approximateness)

kısa (short)

kısa+ce-->kısaca (not short, but close to short)

Kısaca bir çocuktu. (He was a shortish child)

büyük (big)

büyük+ce-->büyüe (not big, but close to big)

Büyükçe bir alanda toplanmıştık. (We had gathered in a biggish square)


geniş (large)

geniş+ce-->genişçe (not large, but close to large)

Genişçe bir mezar. ((It´s) a largish grave)

vs. vs. vs....

This suffix (-ce) has a few tasks more. But it is not necessary to explain those tasks now.


c) -den

c.a) ablative case : from

c.b) becuse of : -den (dolayı)* : *it is opitonal to use or not to use.

c.c c.d and some more...


Matematik (Maths)


k is an incontinuant hard consonant. d is an incontinuant soft consonant.


Matematikten anlamıyorum. (I don´t understand about the maths.)


gürültü (noise)

sessizlik (silence)


k is an incontinuant hard. d is, contrarily, soft. d-->t


Gürültüden değil, sessizlikten hoşlanırım. (I like the silence, not the noise.)


üzüntü (sorrow)



Üzüntüden ne dediğini bilmiyor. (She doesn´t know what she says because of the sorrow.)


yarık (slot)


k is incontinuant hard. d is soft.


Su yarıktan içeriye sızıyor. (The water is oozing inside from the slot.)


baş (1head, 2the first time of a duration, 3main, 4...6...7leader,..)


ş is a continuant hard consonant. d is soft. d-->t


Onu baştan düşünecektin! (You had to think it earlier!) (purely: You would think it as you would start this, now it is too late to do more things.)


yüksek (high)

ses (1voice, 2sound)


s is a continuand hard consonant. d is soft. d-->t


Yüksek sesten rahatsız oluyoruz. (We are disturbed of the high voice.)


d) -gi


sevmek (to love)


sev + gi -------------> sevgi (love)


Sevgi olmazsa evlilik mutlaka biter. (The wedding absolutely ends up unless there is any love.)


katmak (1to add, 2to put sth in, ...)


kat + gı -------------->katkı (contribution)


Derneğimize katkıda bulunmak ister misiniz? (Would you like to contribute to our foundation?)


There are more suffixes to give as an example but I think you have comprehended the main logic, haven´t you? Ask what you haven´t understood.

itachix666, eline, GulBahar, Ashendy, Natalya** and zizi76 liked this lesson

View all beginner level lessons in this class - The GRAMMAR Garden OF MEHMET111

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