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Turkish Grammar-4 : N, S, Þ, Y

Now, it´s the time to tell the most important second matter/topic of Turkish.


Imagine a word that ended with a vowel. Let´s add a suffix that starts with a vowel. One of the letters "n, s, ş and y" come between those two vowels. That vowel combinates the word and the suffix. By the way, don´t think that is irregular. It´s regular. Really. Quite regular. It has just a few exceptions.


In the end of the lesson, i will tell those exceptional situations.




The least used one is "ş". It is used only in the distributive numerical adjectives. 


The distributive adjective suffix is "-er"


1 : bir

Bir arabam var. (I have a car)


Birer arabamız var. (Each of us has a car)


3: üç

hak (1warranty, 2right (a right to be able to do something))


Bu oyunda üç hakkın var. (You have three rights in this game)

Bu oyunda üçer hakkınız var. (Each of you has three rights in this game)


10: on


Sınavda geometriden on soru vardı. (There were ten questions from geometry at the exam)

Sınavda geometri, matematik ve coğrafyadan onar soru vardı. (There were ten questions from each of geometry, mathematic and geography)


7: yedi

yedi+er-->yedişer (Both of "i" and "e" are vowels. So as to separate them, "ş" came as combinative letter.)

Öğretmen öğrencileri yedişer kişilik dört gruba ayırdı. (The teacher categorized the students in four group that each of them have seven students)


16: on altı

on altı+er-->on altışar

Her takım on altı maç yapıyor. (Every team are doing sixteen matches)

Takımlar on altışar maç yapıyor. (Each of the teams are doing sixteen matches)




If a word is ending with vowel, and if we bring the possessive suffix of the 3rd person to it, the combinative letter is "s".


The possessive suffix of the 3rd person is "-i(ı,u,ü)"


ön (frontside, fore)


Hastanenin önü kalabalıktı. (The front of the hospital was crowded)


By the way, why not "öni"? Look at the lesson of minor vowel harmony. Can "i" come after "ö"?


ders (lesson)

ders+i -->dersi

Hoca, bugünkü dersi iptal etmiş. (The teacher has cancelled the lesson which is today) ("-i" is accusative case here)

Onun dersi sabah. (His/her lesson is in the morning) ("-i" is possessive here)


araba (car)

araba+i --> arabası (Both of "a" and "ı" are vowels)

Onun arabası bu mu? (Is his/her car this?)


Türkçe (Turkish)

Türkçe+i -->Türkçesi

Türkçesi çok iyi. (He can speak Turkish very well) (direct: His Turkish is very good)


korku (fear, scare)


Korkusu buna engel oldu. (His fear prevented this) (direct: His fear became obstacle to this)


sayı (number)

sayı+i --> sayısı

On sayısı (The number ten)

Uğurlu sayısı sekizdi. (His lucky number was eight.)




poistional endings:

-i (ı, i, u, ü) (belirtme hâli) (accusative)

-e (e, a) (yönelme hâli) (dative)

-de (de, da, te, ta)(bulunma hâli) (locative)

-den (den, dan, ten, tan) (ayrılma hâli) (ablative)

-in (ın, in, un, ün)(tamlayan hâli) (genitive)


If we bring case suffix after the possessive of the third person, the combinative letter is "n". It doesn´t matter if there are two vowels or not. 


ev (house, home)

ev+i(pos.)+de (loc.) --> evinde

Onun evindeydik (We were at his home)

ev+i(pos.)+e (dat.) --> evine

Sonunda evine geri döndü. (He returned his home finally)


son (end)

son+i (pos.) --> sonu

son+i(pos.)+de(loc.)-->sonunda (finally) (direct: in its end)

Filmin sonunda ne oluyor? (What is happening in the end of the movie?)

Sonunda herkes geldi. (Everyone has come finally)


kilise (church)

aziz (saint)

kilise+i (pos.) -->kilisesi

kilise+i(pos.)+i (acc.) -->kilisesini

Aziz George Kilisesi (the Church St. George)

Aziz George Kilisesi+i --> Aziz George Kilisesi´ni (apostrophe is because it is a proper noun)

Aziz George Kilisesi´ni biliyor musun? (Do you know the Church Saint George)


cami (mosque) (that´s an Arabic origined word)

merkez (center, centre)

cami+i (pos.) --> camisi (or originally: camii)

Kocatepe Camisi´ni biliyor musun?/Kocatepe Camii´yi biliyor musun? (Do you know the Mosque Kocatepe?)

(the situation "ii" is only for "cami")


yeni (new)

yeni araba (new car)

yeni bir araba (a new car)

yeni+i (pos.) ---> yenisi (the new one) (direct: its new)

yeni+i(pos.)+i(acc.) -->yenisini

Bu gömlek artık giyilemez, yenisini almak lâzım. (This shirt can be worn no more, it requires to buy the new one)


üniversite (university)

üniversite+i (pos.) -->üniversitesi

Ankara Üniversitesi (the Ankara University)

üniversite+i (pos.) + de (loc.) --> üniversitesinde

Ankara Üniversitesi´nde okuyorum. (I´m studying at Ankara University)


memleket (the place where you were born. this can be a country, a city or a village)



Sınavları bittikten sonra memleketine geri dönecek. (He will return his homeland after his exams ended up)


araba (car)

renk (colour)


araba+i(pos.)+in(genitive) -->arabasının

renk+i(pos.) -->rengi

Arabasının rengi siyah değil. (The colour of his car isn´t black)


o=1he/she/it, 2that (demonstrative adjective), 3that (demonstrative pronoun)

şu=between "that" and "this"



If we bring whichever suffix to "o", "bu" and "şu", the combinative letter is "n".



Onu tanıyamadım; çok değişmiş. (I couldn´t recognize him, he has changed very much)



gerek=necessity, need

Buna gerek yok. (There is no necessity to this.)



Kitabı ondan aldım. (I bought the book from him)


o+lar(plural)-->onlar=1they, 2those



If we bring genitive suffix to a word that ended with vowel, the combinative is "n".


ev+in(genitive)-->evin=of the house

Çin+in(genitive)-->Çin´in=of China

istasyon+in(genitive)-->istasyonun=of the station

yıl+in(genitive)-->yılın=of the year

kelime+in(genitive)-->kelimenin=of the word

dünya+in(genitive)--->dünyanın=of the world

şarkı+in(genitive)--->şarkının=of the song

Türkiye+in(genitive)--->Türkiye´nin=of Turkey

Ankara Üniversitesi+in(genitive)-->Ankara Üniversitesi´nin=of the Ankara University

Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı+in(genitive)--->Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı´nın=of the Ministry of National Education

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti+in(genitive)--->Türkiye Cumhuriyeti´nin=of the Turkish Republic




Imagine a word that ends with vowel. Let´s add a suffix. If the suffix starts with vowel, the combinative letter is "y". "y" is the most used one of combinative letters.


And I´m gonna explain by the suffixes again:


uzay (space)

uydu (satelitte)

uzay+e(dative) --> uzaya

Uzaya yeni bir uydu fırlatıldı. (A new satelitte was shot into the space)


ülke (country)

hangi (which)

ülke+e(dative) -->ülkeye

Hangi ülkeye gideceksin? (Which country will you go to?)


kedi (cat)

kedi+i(accusative) --> kediyi

Kedi besleyeceğim. (I will feed (a) cat)

Kediyi besleyeceğim. (I will feed the cat)



Türkçe+i(accusative) --> Türkçe´yi

İyi Türkçe konuşamaz. (He can´t speak Turkish well) (direct: he can´t speak good Turkish)

Türkçeyi iyi konuşamaz. (He can´t speak Turkish well)


örtü (cover)

örtü+i (accusative) --> örtüyü

(Remember the minor vowel harmony. Can "i" come after "ü"?)

Masanın üzerindeki örtüyü getir. (Bring the cover that is on the table)


öğrenci (student)

öğrenci+im(personal suffix of 1st singular) --> öğrenciyim (i am student)


iyi (good)

iyi+im(personal sf. of 1st sing.) --> iyiyim (i am good)





The combinative letter is never "s" when we bring possessive suffix to "su". The combinative is "y"


su+i(it doesn´t matter accusative or possessive) --> suyu


Bu köyün suyu çok temiz. (The water of this village is very clean)



The combinative letter can be both of "s" and "y" if we bring possessive suffix to "ne".





-Bu adam onun nesi/neyi? (What of him is this man?)

-Amcası. (His uncle)

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View all beginner level lessons in this class - The GRAMMAR Garden OF MEHMET111

View all lessons in this class - The GRAMMAR Garden OF MEHMET111

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