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Turkish Grammar-5: Nouns-1

ad, isim=1name, 2noun

ek=suffix

 

I shall categorise the nouns in details as much as possible.

 

A) According to the quantity.

B) According to the existence.

C) According to the fact being given to the subsistences.

 

A.a) Tekil ad (The singular noun)

 

Like you know, a word is singular if it hasn´t taken plural suffix.

 

tabak (plate), oda (room), krallık (kingdom), ...

 

A.b) Çoğul ad (The plural noun)

 

Like you know again, it´s the word that has taken the plural suffix "-ler".

 

tabaklar (plates), odalar (room), krallıklar (kingdoms), şehirler (cities)

 

A.c) Topluluk Adı (The group noun)

 

Even if it hasn´t taken the plural suffix "-ler", they express the pluralness meaning : ordu (army), halk (folk, people), millet=ulus (nation, people), grup (1group, 2band (music)), kalabalık* (1the crowd, 2crowded), sürü (flock, herd), aile (family), orman (forest), ...

 

*Dün banka çok kalabalıktı. (The bank was too crowded yesterday)

*Öğrenciler büyük bir kalabalık oluşturmuşlardı. (The students had created a big crowd)

 

Like you know, there are some words that have no plural or their plural is irregular in English. I´m not talking about the group nouns. I´m talking about (for example) : sheep (koyun)---> sheeps  sheep (koyunlar), mouse (fare) --> mouses mice (fareler), child (çocuk) ---> childs children (çocuklar), .... In Turkish, this situation never happens. If you want to make the noun plural, it is regular to make : -ler/-lar.

 

B.a) Somut ad (The concrete noun)

somut=concrete

The nouns of the substances we can see, hear, touch or taste.

 

B.b) Soyut ad (The abstract noun)

soyut=abstract

The nouns of the substances we can´t feel by our five senses.

 

hayal (dream), rüya (dream, daydream), sevgi (love), aşk (love (very strong love. the clearest example: to the boyfriend/girlfriend, darling), duygu (feeling), korku (fear, scare), üzüntü (sorrow), ....

 

C.a) Özel ad (The proper noun)

özel=special

 

The proper nouns always begin with capital letter.

If you bring an inflectional suffix, you usually should seperate them by apostrophe (especially case suffixes).

 

Which nouns are proper nouns?

 

a) Names of city, village, country, neighbourhood, continent, ... names

 

Japonya (Japan), Hatay (the southest city of Turkey), Afrika (Africa), ...

 

Japonya´nın başkenti Osaka değil. (The capital of Japan isn´t Osaka.)

Londra´ya pek çok kez gittik. (We have been to London many times.)

Güney Amerika´da en çok konuşulan dil İspanyolca. (The most spoken language in South America is Spanish.)

Ailesi Almanya´da. (His family is in Germany)

 

b) Nation, language names.

 

Yunan (Greek (nation)), Yunanca (Greek (language), Kızılderili (Indian (native American, Amerindian, Redskin))

 

-Sen İsveçli misin Alman mısın? (Are you Swedish or German?)

-Aslında İsveçliyim ama çocukluğumdan beri Almanya´da yaşıyorum. (Indeed I´m Swedish but I have been living in Germany since my childhood.)

 

If you add posessive suffix to the language names, the apostrophe isn´t used.

 

Senin Türkçen çok iyi ama biraz daha pratik yapman gerek. (Your Turkish is very good but you should practise a bit more.)

Portekizcesi şimdilik kötü, çünkü çalışmaya fazla zaman bulamıyor. (His Portuguese is bad for now, because he can´t find much time to study.)

 

If you bring the plural suffix to the nation names, the apostrophe isn´t used.

Türkler (Turks), Finliler/Finler (Finns), Macarlar (Hungarians), Ruslar (Russians), Çekler (Czechians)...

 

Türklerin çoğu misafirperverdir. (Most of Turks are hospitable)

Kalevala Finlilere ait en ünlü destan. (Kalevala is the most famous epic which is belonging to Finns)

Bu şarkı Korelilerce çok sevildi. (This song was loved by the Koreans very much)

 

c) Names of sea, ocean, mountain, valley, desert,...

 

Akdeniz (Mediterranean Sea), Karadeniz (Black Sea), Hint Okyanusu (Indian Ocean), Sahra Çölü (The Desert Sahara), Ağrı Dağı (The Mount Ağrı), Himalaya Dağları (Himalayalar) (Himalayas), Toros Dağları (Toroslar) (Taurus Mountains)...

 

Pasifik Okyanusu´nda gemi kazası olmuş. (A ship crash has happened in the Pacific Ocean) (or shortly: Pasifik´te)

Ermeniler Ağrı Dağı´na "Ararat" der. (The Armenians call the Mount Ağrı as "Ararat")

Toroslarda balık fosilleri bulundu. (The fish fossils have been found on the Taurus Mountains)

Himalayalara kim tırmanmış? (Who has climbed to the Himalayas?)

Victorian Şelalesi´ni biliyor musun? (Do you know the Waterfall Victiorian?)

Katrina Kasırgası Amerika´yı mahvediyor. (The Hurricane Katrina is laying the America in ruins)

 

ç) Names of foundations, establishments...

 

Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı (The Ministry of Youth and Sport), Ankara Üniversitesi (Ankara University), Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi (Ankara University, The Faculty of Education Sciences), ...

 

Ankara Üniversitesi´nde okuyorum. (I´m studying at the Ankara University) (by the way, really i´m studying there)

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti´nin kuruluş yılı 1923´tür. (The foundation year of Turkish Republic is 1923)

Yeni liste FIFA´ya gönderildi. (The new list was sent to FIFA)

NATO´ya katılmayan birkaç ülke var. (There are a few countries that haven´t joined to NATO)

 

d) Names of book, newspaper, magazine, movie ...

 

Yüzüklerin Efendisi (The Lord of the Rings), Suç ve Ceza (Crime and Punishment), Hürriyet (a newspaper in Turkey), Kanal D (a tv channel in Turkey),...

 

Harry Potter´ın yazarı kim? (Who is the author of Harry Potter?)

O film RTL´de de yayınlandı. (That film has also broadcasted by RTL (direct: at RTL))

TRT´nin Türkiye´nin en eski televizyon kanalı olduğunu bugün öğrendim. (I have learnt today that TRT  is the oldest television channel of Turkey)

 

e) Human names. And the names which has been given to the animals.

 

Mehmet (a male name) (besides, my name is Mehmet), Mustafa (a male name), Kemal (a male name), Zeynep (a female name), Gülsüm (a female name), ......, Tekir (somebody give this name to the cat), Sarıkız (direct: yellow girl) (in the village speaking, it sometimes may be given to the cows), Karakaçan (like ´Sarıkız´ may be given to the cows, ´Karakaçan´ too may be given to the donkeys), etc. etc.

 

C.b) Cins isim (The common noun)

 

I think I need not explain. :)


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