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Turkish Grammar-5: Nouns-2.a

One of kinds of the inflectional suffixes which can be brought to the noun are case suffixes (in more correct words: positional suffixes). We call them "hâl ekleri".

hâl=1case, 2situation, 3condition

 

There are six essential cases in Turkish:

1) yalın hâl (nominative case),

2) belirtme hâli (accusative case),

3) yönelme hâli (dative case),

4) bulunma hâli (location case),

5) ayrılma hâli (ablative case),

6) tamlayan hâli (genitive case)

 

A) Yalın Hâl

 

There is no article in Turkish.

 

B) Belirtme Hâli (i hâli) (-ı,i,u,ü)

 

It is used so as to make the noun direct object, like you may know from your own languages.

 

Kitap okudum. (I read (a) book)

Kitabı okudum. (I read the book)

 

Oyun kazandık. (We won (a) game)

Oyunu kazandık. (We won the game)

 

Bu sitede Türkçe öğreniyorlar. (They are learning Turkish on this site)

Bu sitede Türkçeyi öğreniyorlar. (They are learning the Turkish language on this site)

 

adam (man)

adam+ı(accusative)

Bu adamı dün de görmüştüm. (I have seen that man yesterday as well.)

 

ders (lesson)

ders+i(accusative)

En sonki dersi iyi dinleyemedim. (I couldn´t listen to the last lesson well.)

 

resim (picture)

resim+ler(plural)+i(accusative)

Nereden resimler buldun? (Where did you find (some) pictures?) (direct: From where did you find (some) pictures?)

Resimleri nereden buldun? (Where did you find the pictures?) (direct: From where did you find the pictures?)

 

herkes (everybody)

herkes+i (accusative)

Müdür herkesi odasına çağırdı. (The director called everybody to his room.)

 

dosya (1document, 2file (computer))

dosya+ı(accusative)-->dosyayı

 

Dosya indirmek istedim. (I wanted to download a file.)

Dosyayı indirmek bilgisayarınız için zararlı olabilir. (It may be harmful for your computer to download the file)

 

kimse, hiç kimse (nobody)

kimse+i / hiç kimse+i (accusative)

Kimseyi / Hiç kimseyi dinlemek istemiyorum. (I want to listen to nobody.)

 

kız (girl)

oğlan (boy)

oğlan+i(accusative)

Ama kız o oğlanı hâlâ unutamamıştı. (But the girl hasn´t forgetten that boy yet)

 

telefon (telephone)

telefon+i (accusative) --> telefonu

Üç kez çaldı ama telefonu açmadım. (It rang three times but I didn´t open the telephone)

 

(telefon açmak=to call something by telephone. (direct:to open telephone to ...))

* I will examplify this in the dative case topic.

 

konu (matter, topic)

konu+i(accusative)

Bu konuyu anlamadım. (I didn´t understand this topic)

 

gösteri (show)

gösteri+i(accusative)

Gösteri düzenlemişler (They have organised a show)

Gösteriyi onlar düzenlemişler. (They have organised the show) (I´m not going to the detail of the emphasise according to the order of the sentence for now. It will be explained in another lesson)

 

sen (you (singular))

sen+i

Seni seviyorum. (I love you)

 

C) Yönelme hâli (e hâli) (-e/a)

 

siz (you (plural or respect))

siz+e(dative)

Size ihtiyacımız var. (We need you) (direct: We have got necessity to you)

 

(work)

iş+e(dative)

İşe saat dokuzda başlarız. (We start work at nine o´clock) (direct: We start to the work at nine o´clock)

 

biz (we)

biz+e(dative)

Bize yalan söylediniz. (You told us lies (directly: You told to us lies.)

 

bura (this place, here)

bura+e(dative)

Buraya gel. (Come here) (direct: Come to here)

 

hiç kimse / kimse (nobody)

kimse+e(dative)

Kimseye inanmıyorum=I believe in nobody. (direct: I am not believing to nobody)

Kimseye güvenmiyorum=I trust nobody (direct: I am not trusting to nobody)

 

Türkçe+e(dative)

Türkçeye iki ay önce başladım=I started Turkish two months ago. (direct: I started to Turkish two months ago)

 

sağlık (health)

sağlık+e(dative)

dikkat etmek (1to pay attention,2to take care)

Sağlığa dikkat etmek gerek. (It is needed to take care about health) (direct: To make attention to the health requires. )

 

o (1he/she/it, 2that (demonstrative))

âşık (fallen in love)

Ben ona aşığım. (I have fallen in love with him/her) (direct: I am the fallen in love to him/her)

 

okul (school)

okul+e(dative)

Okula gitmedim. (1 I didn´t go to the school, 2 I didn´t study at the school)

 

ev (house, home)

ev+e

Eve ne zaman geleceksin? (When will you come home?) (direct: When will you come to home?)

 

kural (rules)

kural+lar (plural)+ a (dative)

Kurallara uymayan cezalandırılacaktır. (Who doesn´t obey the rules will be punished) (direct: ..... obey to the rules....)

 

anne (mother)

anne+m(possessive)+e(dative)

anne+m (possessive)+i (accusative)

aramak=1to search, to look for, 2to call (by telephone)

Hemen anneme telefon açtım=Hemen annemi aradım. (I called my mother immadiately)

(direct: I opened telephone to my mother immadiately)

 

Some prepoisitons which are used with dative case.

 

1) -e göre (according to)

dün (yesterday)

bugün (today)

hava (1air, 2weather, 3swank, 4... 5...)

dün+e göre

Hava bugün düne göre daha iyi. (Today the weather is better than yesterday) (direct: The weather is better today in comparison with yesterday)

 

ülke (country)

ülke+ler+e göre

Eğitim sistemleri ülkelere göre değişebilir. (The education systems may be change according to the countries.)

 

kişi (person)

yirmi (twenty)

kişi+e göre

Bu plan yirmi kişiye göre yapıldı, ama sonra dört kişi daha geldi. Ne yapacağız? (This plan has been done according to twenty people, but four people more came later. What shall we do?)

 

kural (rule)

kural+lar+a göre

Her şeyi kurallara göre yaptık. (We did everything according to the rules.)

 

öğrenci (student)

öğrenci+ler (plural)+e göre

Öğrencilere göre bu sistem çok kötü sorunlar yaratacak. (This system will create too bad problems in opinion of students.) (direct: ............ according to the students)

 

2) -e kadar (until, till)

 

akşam (evening)

akşam+e kadar

Bugün akşama kadar burada olacağım. (I will be here till evening today)

 

cadde (mainstreet)

köpek (dog)

ben (I)

ben+i (accusative)

cadde+e kadar

Köpek beni caddeye kadar kovaladı (The dog chased me until the main street.)

 

en geç (latest)

dört (four)

gün (day)

haber (news)

vermek (to give)

haber vermek=to inform

gün+e kadar

Dört güne kadar size haber vereceğiz. (We will inform you within four days) (direct: We will give news to you until four days)

 

3) -e rağmen (although, though, despite)

 

yarış (race, racing)

yağmur (rain)

yağmur+e rağmen

Yarış, yağmura rağmen devam etti.(The race continued despite the rain)

 

tüm (whole, all)

itiraz (objection)

itiraz+ler(plural)+e rağmen

Tüm itirazlara rağmen karar değişmedi. (The decision didn´t change despite all the objections)

 

I will write locative, ablative and genitive cases in the next lesson.


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