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Turkish Grammar-6: Verbs-5.1

It may be difficult to understand this tense for you. I agree. It´s difficult to translate into English exactly.The Finns tell this by "-pä/pa" or "-hän/han" easily, the Finns understand this quickly but

English hasn´t this tense. The nearest tense is Present Perfect, but sometimes even it can´t express.


The first type of personal suffixes are used.


-miş+im -mişim
-miş+sin -mişsin
-miş+- -miş
-miş+iz -mişiz
-miş+siniz -mişsiniz
-miş+ler -mişler



-miş miyim?

-miş misin?

-miş mi?

-miş miyiz?

-miş misiniz?

-mişler mi?


When is this tense used?


1) Informing


Japonya (Japan)

deprem (the earthquake)

olmak (1to be, 2....3.....4to happen, 5to occur, 6......)


Japonya+da-------->Japonya´da (in Japan)



Japonya´da deprem olmuş. (An earthquake has happened in Japan)


For example, I´m at the garden and watering the flowers. You are watching TV inside. I´m finishing watering the flowers and coming back home. You are saying me that sentence. Because you used

"-miş", I understand you have learned it from somewhere.


neden (1the reason, the cause, 2why?)

neden?=niye? (why?)

gecikmek=geç kalmak (to be late)

araba (the car)

bozulmak (to break down)

onunla (with it/him/her)

uğraşmak (to be busy)



bozul+miş+- ------->bozulmuş


araba+ları---------->their car


-Neden geçikmişler? (Why have they been late?)

-Arabaları bozulmuş, onunla uğraşmışlar. (Their car has broken down, they have been busy with it.)


For example, all of us are waiting for them. We are waiting for a long time but they haven´t come yet. I´m saying you to call them. You´re calling them. They are saying to you on the phone that their car has broken down etc. Then you are telling us what they said. You are informing us, giving news.


bura (this place, here)

ora (that place, there)

dün (yesterday)

hava (1the sky, 2the weather, 3the air)

yağmur (the rain)

yağmak (to fall from the sky (for meteorological events))


bura+da(locative)---------->burada (here)

ora+da(loc.)--------------->orada (there)

yağ+dı(past simple)-------->yağdı (it fell down from the sky)



A-->B -Orada dün hava nasıldı? (How was the weather there yesterday?)

B-->A -Dün burada yağmur yağdı.(It rained here yesterday.)

A-->C -Dün orada yağmur yağmış.(It has rained there yesterday.)


C understands that A has learnt this from somewhere or somebody.


ev (the house, the home)

ekmek (the bread)

kalmak (1to remain, 2to stay)

almak (1to take, 2to buy)

demek (to say)


ev+de(loc.)----------------->evde (at home)


de+di----------------------->dedi (he said)


"Gelirken ekmek al" dedi, evde ekmek kalmamış. (S/he said "buy bread while you are coming",

no bread has remained at home)


You are saying this to me and I understand you have heard no bread has remained from the ones who are at home. You didn´t knew, you learnt it from them.


maç (the match)

henüz=daha=hâlâ (yet, still)

başlamak (1to begin, 2to start)




Maç daha başlamamış. (The match hasn´t started yet)


For example, I ask this someone. S/he says to me "Maç daha başlamadı (The match hasn´t started yet)" and I tell this to you using "-miş". You understand someone has said this to me.


dün (yesterday)

okul (the school)

gitmek (to go)


okul+e(dative)--------------->okula (to the school)



Dün okula gitmemişsin. (You haven´t gone to the school yesterday.)


For example, I wasn´t at home whole day yesterday. I wasn´t at night too. I come next day. Someone else says to me "O dün okula gitmedi (He didn´t go to the school yesterday)" and I say this to you by "-miş". You understand I have learnt this from somewhere.


onlar (they)

ders (the lesson)

bitmek (to end, to finish)


onlar+e(dative)----->onlara (to them)

bit+di--------------->bitti (it finished)

de+di+m------------>dedim (I said)

git+me+miş+ler----->gitmemişler mi?


Ben onlara "ders bitti, gidebilirsiniz" dedim, hâlâ gitmemişler. (I said them "the

lesson finished, you can go", they haven´t gone yet.)






gibi (like)


çocuk (the child)

çocuk gibi (like child)


aslan (the lion)

bir (1a/an, 2one, 3...4..5...)

hayvan (the animal)

aslan gibi bir hayvan (an animal like lion)


abla (the older sister)


abla+n(posessive)----->ablan (your sister)

Ablan gibisin (You are like your (older) sister)


eski (old)

dil (1the tongue, 2the language)


Çince gibi (like Chinese)

Türkçe Çince gibi eski bir dil. (Turkish is an old language like Chinese.)


bu (this)

sonuç (the result)

iyi (good, well)

önceki (previous, the previous one)

kötü (bad)

değil (not)


sonuç+lar----->sonuçlar (results)

Bu sonuçlar iyi. (These results are good.)

önceki+ler------>öncekiler (the previous ones)

öncekiler gibi (like the previous ones)

kötü değil (not bad)

öncekiler gibi kötü değil (not bad like the previous ones)


Bu sonuçlar iyi; öncekiler gibi kötü değil. (These results are good, not bad like the previous ones)


niye (why?)

herkes (everybody)

davranmak (to behave, to act)


herkes gibi (like everybody)

davran+ma+yor+sin-------->davranmıyorsun (you aren´t acting/behaving)


Niye herkes gibi değilsin? Niye herkes gibi davranmıyorsun? (Why aren´t you like everybody? Why don´t you act like everybody?)


bu+in(genitive)------>bunun (of this)



bunun gibi (like this)

şunun gibi (like that)

onun gibi (like that)

bu+lar--------------->bunlar (these)



bunlar gibi (like these)

şunlar gibi (like those)

onlar gibi (like those)


Onlar gibi misiniz? (Are you like them?)

Bunlar gibi olmamamız gerek. (We mustn´t be like these)

Türkçeyi onlar gibi konuşmak istiyorum. (I want to speak Turkish like them.)


If you want to use it with personal pronouns, you must use with posessive pronouns except "they".


benim gibi (like me)

senin gibi (like you)

onun gibi (like it/him/her)

bizim gibi (like us)

sizin gibi (like you)

onlar gibi (like them)



Onun gibi konuşuyorsun. (You are talking like him)


Sizin gibi düşünmüyoruz. (We don´t think like you)

Mehmet (a Turkish male name)

çalışkan (hardworking)

öğrenci (the student)

Mehmet senin gibi çalışkan bir öğrenci. (Mehmet is a hardworking student like you)





-miş gibi (as if / as though)


This pattern is sometimes preferred to use with "sanki". "Sanki" means the same, too. If you want, you don´t use "-miş gibi" and you use just "sanki". But this isn´t preferred very much. If you want to strengthen the meaning of denying, you can use "sanki" and "-miş" together. The most used way is to use just "-miş gibi".


bana (to me)

kafayı yemek (to get mad, to crazy (direct: to eat the head)

bakmak (to look at)





Bana kafayı yemişim gibi baktılar. (They looked at me as if I got mad)


If you want, you can also use "sanki" additionally. ....sanki kafayı yemişim gibi....


anlamak (to understand)

tekrar tekrar (again and again)

niye/neden? (why?)

sormak (to ask)


anla+ma+mış ---------------> anlamamış

sor+yor+sin-----------------> soruyorsun


Anlamamış gibi tekrar tekrar niye soruyorsun? (Why are you asking again and again as if you haven´t understood.)


doğmak (1to be born, 2to rise)

büyümek (to become big)

konuşmak (1to speak, 2to talk)




doğ+miş büyü+miş----------->doğmuş büyümüş

konuş+yor+lar--------------->konuşuyorlar (they are speaking)


Türkçeyi Türkiye´de doğmuş büyümüş gibi konuşuyorlar. (They speak Turkish as if they were born and

got adult in Turkey)


yağmur (the rain)

yağmak (to fall from the sky (for metorological events))

hava (1the air, 2the weather, 3the sky)




Hava sanki yağmur yağmış gibi. (It´s the weather as if it has rained. (direct: The weather is as if

it has rained))


Sanki yağmur yağmış. (As if it has rained)


cam (the glass)

ben (I)

kırmak (to break (transitive))

suçlamak (to accuse)


cam+ı (accusative)---->camı (the glass (acc))


ben+i(acc.)------------>beni (me)

suçla+ma- ------------>suçlama


Camı sanki ben kırmışım gibi beni suçlama. (Don´t accuse me as if I have broken

the glass)

hamzeh liked this lesson

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