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Turkish Grammar-5: Nouns-6.1

You shall see something about extra verbs during these three lessons. What are they? One of them is "idi" (the past tense), other one is "imiş" (the unknownness: hearing, learning from somewhere/noticing, realising, surprising) and the last one is "ise" (if).


*a) If the last letter of the word is a consonant, "i" disappears. If the consonant is hard, the hardening of the consonant happens like you know. "d" becomes "t". If the consonant is soft, no hardenings happen.


*b) If you write them as suffix and if the last letter of the word is a vowel, "i" becomes "y" and it requires to obey the vowel harmonies.


*c) They don´t obey to vowel harmonies or hardenings when they are written separately. But we usually prefer to write them as suffixes. The meaning never changes when they are written separately or as suffix. No changing happens.




The second type of personal suffixes will be used like we have used at the simple past of the verbs.


idi m idim I was
idi n idin you were
idi   idi



idi k idik we were
idi niz idiniz you were
idi ler




they were



a) değil (not), yalnız (1alone, 2lonely)


değil idim (I was not).......... | değil mi idim? (was not i?)

değil idin  (you were not).... | değil mi idin? (were not you?)

değil idi   (he/she/it was not) |değil mi idi? (was not he/she/it?)

değil idik  (we were not)...... | değil mi idik? (were not we?)

değil idiniz (you were not).... | değil mi idiniz? (were not you?)

değil idiler (they were not)... | değil mi idiler?

/değiller idi.........................| /değiller mi idi?


yalnız idim (i was alone).........| yalnız değil idim (i was not alone)

yalnız idin (you were alone)....| yalnız değil idin (you were not alone)

yalnız idi (he/she/it was alone)| yalnız değil idi (he/she/it was not alone)

yalnız idik (we were alone)......| yalnız değil idik (we were not alone)

yalnız idiniz (you were alone)...| yalnız değil idiniz (you were not alone)

yalnız idiler (they were alone)...| yalnız değil idiler (they were not alone)

/yalnızlar idi..........................| /yalnız değiller idi


yalnız mı idim (was i alone?)..... | yalnız değil mi idim?

yalnız mı idin (were you alone?).| yalnız değil mi idin?

yalnız mı idi (was he alone?)......| yalnız değil mi idi?

yalnız mı idik (were we alone?)...| yalnız değil mi idik?

yalnız mı idiniz (were you alone?)| yalnız değil mi idiniz?

yalnız mı idiler (were they alone?)| yalnız değil mi idiler?

/yalnızlar mı idi?...................... | /yalnız değiller mi idi?


The way we prefer much more: to add as suffix


yalnız idi---------->yalnızdı

"i" disappeared and "-di" obeyed the vowel harmonies.

değil idi----------->değildi

"i" disappeared.


yalnızdım (i was alone).....yalnız değildim (i wasn´t alone)

yalnızdın........................yalnız değildin

yalnızdı..........................yalnız değildi

yalnızdık.........................yalnız değildik

yalnızdınız.......................yalnız değildiniz

yalnızdılar........................yalnız değildiler

/yalnızlardı......................./yalnız değillerdi


yalnız mı idi------>yalnız mıydı?


"i" becomes "y" because "mı" is vowel-ended.


yalnız mıydım? (was i alone?).......yalnız değil miydim? (wasn´t i alone?)

yalnız mıydın? (were you alone?)..yalnız değil miydin? (weren´t you alone?)

yalnız mıydı? (is he/she/it alone?).yalnız değil miydi? (wasn´t he alone?)

yalnız mıydık? (were we alone?)....yalnız değil miydik? (weren´t we alone?)

yalnız mıydınız? (were you alone?).yalnız değil miydiniz? (weren´t you alone?)

yalnız mıydılar? (were they alone?).yalnız değil miydiler? (weren´t they alone?)

/yalnızlar mıydı?........................../yalnız değiller miydi?


dün (yesterday)

okul (the school)

yok (1absent, 2there isn´t/aren´t)


okul+da(locative)------------->okulda (at the school)

yok+di(past)+m(pers. sfx.)---->yoktum (i was absent)


reminding: "k" is hard consonant, "d" is soft consonant. "d" had to harden and become "t".

"o" is hard and round. "i" had to become hard and round.


Dün okulda yoktum. (I was absent at the school yesterday)

You can also write as "yok idim" but we usually prefer to add as suffix like i said a few times.


kardeş (sibling (mutual name of brother and sister))

geçen hafta (last week)

çok (1very, 2much, many, 3too)

hasta (1ill, sick, 2the patient)


kardeş+m(posessive)---------------->kardeşim (my sibling)

hasta+idi--------------------------->hastaydı (he was ill)


Kardeşim geçen hafta çok hastaydı. (My sibling was too ill last week)


iki (two)

saat (1hour, 2clock, 3the watch)

önce (1before, 2ago)

sahil (the seashore) (pronunciation: saahil)


sahil+de(locative)+idi+k(personal)---------->sahildeydik (we were on the seashore)


İki saat önce sahildeydik. (We were on the seashore two hours ago)


geçen yıl (last year)

Mersin (one of the southern cities of Turkey which is located at Mediterranean Sea)

gitmek (1to go, ...)

ora (that place, there)

bir (1one, ....)

ay (1month, 2moon)

kalmak (1to stay, 2to remain, ......)

her şey (everything)

çok (1very, 2much, ....)

güzel (nice)


Mersin+e(dative)------------>Mersin´e (to Mersin)

git+di(past)+k(personal)----->gittik (we went)

ora+da(locative)------------->orada (at that place, there)

kal+dı(past)+k(personal)----->kaldık (we stayed)

güzel+di(past)--------------->güzeldi (it was good)


Geçen yıl Mersin´e gittik. Orada bir ay kaldık. Her şey çok güzeldi. (We have been to Mersin last year. We stayed there for a month. Everything was very nice)



ama=fakat (but)

yine de (nevertheless)

yemek (1the meal, 2to eat)


değil+di(past)+m(personal)------------------->değildim (i wasn´t)

ye+di(past)+m(personal)--------------------->yedim (i ate)


Aç değildim ama yine de yedim. (I wasn´t hungry but I ate nevertheless.)


saat (1hour, 2the watch, 3clock)

beş (five)

nere (where, which place)


beş+de(locative)---------------------------->beşte (at five)

nere+de(locative)+idi(past)+niz(personal)----->neredeydiniz (where were you?)


reminding: "i" became "y" because "e" is a vowel.

Saat beşte neredeydiniz? (Where were you at five o´clock?)


yan (1nearside, .......)

kimse / hiç kimse (nobody)

yok (1absent, 2there isn´t/aren´t)

yalnız (alone)


yan+m(poss.)+da(locative)------------->yanımda (beside me)

yok+di--------------------------------->yoktu (there wasn´t)


Yanımda (hiç) kimse yoktu; yalnızdım. (I was with nobody, I was alone (direct:There were nobody beside me, I was alone))


oda (the room)

gürültü (the noise)

gürültülü (noisy)

var (there is/are)


oda+da(locative)------------->odada (in the room)

var+dı(past)----------------->vardı (there was/were)


Odada çok gürültü vardı. (There was much noise in the room)


gürültülü+idi------------------>gürültülüydü (it was noisy)


Oda çok gürültülüydü. (The room was too noisy)


konser (the concert)

dans (the dance)

grup (the group)

gösteri (the show)

sonra (1after, 2later, 3then)

-den sonra (after ...) (direct: later from ...)


dans grup+i(possessive)-------------->dans grubu (the dance group)

dans grup+i(posessive)+in(genitive) gösteri+i(posessive)+den(ablative)--------->dans grubunun (of the dance group) gösterisinden (from its show)


Konser, dans grubunun gösterisinden sonraydı. (The concert was after the show of the dance group.)

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