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Plurals

Plurals

The plural suffixes are –ler and –lar. All the nouns, countable or uncountable, and all the adjectives can be made plural. Adjectives function as a noun in this case. 

When adding a plural suffix to a word you normally have to choose the vowel that harmonises with the last vowel in the receiving word. If the last vowel of the receiving word is one of the high vowels (e – i – ö – ü ) add –ler suffix to the word.

Examples:

defternotebookdefterler
öğrenci student öğrenciler
şeker sugar şekerler
göl lake göller
ev house evler
gün day günler
İngiliz Englishman İngilizler
güzel beautiful güzeller
pencere window pencereler
ekmekbread ekmekler

If the last vowel of the receiving word is one of the low vowels ( a – ı – o – u ) add –lar suffix to the word.

Examples:

okul school okullar
masa table masalar
bardak glass bardaklar
kalın thick kalınlar
kız girl kızlar
ulus nation uluslar
telefon phone telefonlar
bekar single bekarlar
su water sular
çay tea çaylar
kırmızı red kırmızılar

If the last consanant of a word is “l” with a preceding vowel double the letter “l” when adding plural suffixes –ler or –lar as in examples below:

dal branch dallar
el hand eller
kıl hair kıllar
dul widow dullar
kel bald keller
göl lake göller
çöl desert çöller
dil tongue, language diller
mal property mallar

The use of plurals

The plural suffix is added to indicate plurality. If plurality is shown by a numeral greater than one or a word like “çok” (many), or “kaç” (how many), no plural suffix is added to the noun as in examples below:

iki kitap two books not ”iki kitaplar”
çok bardak a lot of glasses not “çok bardaklar”
kaç kişi how many people not “kaç kişiler”

Sınıfta on beş öğrenci var.There are fifteen students in the class.
Dolapta çok bardak var. There are a lot of glasses in the cupboard.
Partide kaç kişi vardi. How many people were there in the party?
Kalemler çekmecede. The pencils are in the drawer.


In question and negative “…var mı?” (Is / are there any…) and “…yok” (There isn’t / aren’t any…) sentences plural suffix is not added to the noun as in examples below:

Sınıfta hiç öğrenci var mı? Are there any students in the class?
Masada hiç kitap yok. There aren’t any books on the table.
Buzdolabında hiç yumurta yok. There aren’t any eggs in the fridge.

kiaraNd, alexandrabotez@, hedaya, JohannaPo, lmbutterfly111 and Evyenia liked this lesson


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