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Using of suffix “diğ”
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1.       slavica
814 posts
 15 Jul 2005 Fri 01:31 am

Can someone tell me something about using of “diğ” suffix.
For example,what's difference between
1. sevdiğim
2. sevdim
3. severim

2.       bliss
900 posts
 15 Jul 2005 Fri 06:43 am

Hello Slavica,
Of course I am just beginner but want to answer your question. It is kind of test for me, and I'll be glad if I pass. We have pro's here, and I ask them to correct me, if I am wrong.T hank you in advance.

Severim - I love -Simple Present Tense
Sevdim -I loved (I used to love) -Simple Past Tense
Sevdigim - I will love (I am going to love) - Future Tense

3.       erdinc
2151 posts
 15 Jul 2005 Fri 10:02 am

Hello Bliss,
Excellent. It`s almost right except the explanation regarding `sevdiğim`.
Future tense suffixes are -ecek, -acak. So if it had been future tense it would be `seveceğim`; I will love.

Greetings Slavica,
Lets start with the infinitive:
sevmek, sev-mek > to love (or `to like` as it is common to use the word in this meaning also.)
-mek, -mak is the infinitive suffix. Before we start adding other suffixes to a verb first we simply drop the infinitive suffix and we get the imperative: `sev`.
Now we can start adding the suffixes.

#3. is very easy. As Bliss said;
3. sev-er-im: `I love` is the simple present tense.
-er,-ar are the simple present tense suffixes and
the personal suffix for first person is: -ım, -im, -um, -üm.

#2. is again very easy. As Bliss said, it is simple past tense.
2. sevdim, sev-di-m > `I loved/I have loved` Here the translation could be into present perfect tense depending whether the person stil is in love or not.
It is important to know that there are no present perfect or past perfect tenses in turkish. Many of the simple past tense sentences therefore would fit better to present perfect tense in english depending on the content.

Here, the simple past tense suffixes are -dı, -di, -du, -dü and the personal suffix for first person is only -m . But why? Because the simple past tense suffixes, unlike other tenses are ending with a vowel. Therefore the vowel on the personal suffix has droppen.

#1 on the other hand is very different. This is called the `past participle as adjective`.
sevdiğim > The one I loved
Sevdiğim kadın gitti. > The woman I loved has gone.

The past participle adjective suffixes are: –dık, -dik, -duk, -dük, -tık, -tik, -tuk, -tük.

The possessive suffixes for first person are:
-ım, -im, -um, -üm.

So normally it should be:
sev-dik-im but according consonant mutation it has become sevdiğim:

More Examples:
bil-dik > known
bildiğim yer > the place I know

gör-dük > seen
gördüğüm resim > the picture I have seen

sev-dik > loved
sevdiğim renk > the colour I like

git-git > gone
gittiğim şehir > the city I went

If sevdik had been followed by a consonant there wouldnt be a consonant mutation and it would had been remanined as sevdik. We can see this for instance by adding a plural suffix (-lar, -ler) in between:
sev-dik-ler-im: those I have loved, things I have loved, my loved ones

Also the past participle can be used in many different ways. Like these below:

sevdiğim zaman > when I love you
sevdiğim gibi > as I have loved you
sevdiğinde > when you have seen
gördüğünde > when you have seen
gittiğimde > when I have gone


Only in turkish for our turkish visitors:
http://www.dilimiz.com/dil/TurkDili/trkdili3.htm#SIFAT FİİLLER

As you have seen above some little details can be very complicated in turkish grammer. This is the reason why I strongly belive there should be enough reading material especially written and revised for turkish learners. I`m currently working on these kind texts.

Moha-ios, ninacath, slavica and MrsBee liked this message
4.       erdinc
2151 posts
 15 Jul 2005 Fri 10:11 am

unfortunately it isnt yet possible to edit posts in this forum and I realised a few mistakes in my post above. The correct version should be:

sevdiğim zaman > when I love
sevdiğim gibi > as I love/as I have loved
sevdiğinde > when you love/when you have loved
gördüğünde > when you see/when you have seen
gittiğimde > when I go/when I have gone

Moha-ios and MrsBee liked this message
5.       bliss
900 posts
 15 Jul 2005 Fri 11:59 am

Thank you, Erdinc.I appreciate your job.Sorry of course for trying to translate but like I said it is good practice even if we make mistakes.If we don't make mistakes we'll not learn.I think mistakes are part of learning.Thank you for your posts, they are great.They help a lot.

Regards Bliss

6.       erdinc
2151 posts
 15 Jul 2005 Fri 12:53 pm

Hello bliss,
You are doing very well as a Turkish learner. It`s a great pleasure to read your posts. Keep up the good work.

I think having any kind of experiment with words will help for a learner of a foreign language. In any sitaution where we think about a word or when we are recognising a word among others we are having an experiment with the word. Even the simplest experiments can help I think.

7.       slavica
814 posts
 16 Jul 2005 Sat 01:07 am

Thanks to both of you: Bliss for her wish to help, erdinc for detailed explanation. Although I already knew most of what you wrote – about infinitive, imperative, simple present tense, simple past tense – it’s good to have all at one place. I also know about wowel harmony, possessive and personal suffixes, future tense, actually, I’m not bad in grammar, but I couldn’t find anywhere explanation for suffixe “diğ”. I must admit that it since look pretty difficult for me. Maybe the reason is that English is also not my native language. It’s not easy to learn some language through another foreign language
So, how could you translate “sevdiğim kadar”?
Or “seni görebildiğim”?
Which remids me: what's meaning of suffix “bil”?
For example “bakabilir miyim?” means “may I look?”, right? What kind of construction is it?
Erdinc, as a professional teacher you must also know psihology of learning, so can you tell me, please, how to learn to use practical my theoretical knowledge of grammar, this is my biggest problem. Do you think it will come spontaneous when I start to talk with people, instead of learning from books?
Thanks again!

8.       bliss
900 posts
 16 Jul 2005 Sat 07:10 am

Thank you, Erdinc for the praise.I appreciate that, as I am a teacher myself. I have to admit that being a student for me now is harder than a teacher.But I try my best.
Thank you to all my classmates who help me my dream come true.

9.       erdinc
2151 posts
 16 Jul 2005 Sat 01:44 pm

Hello slavica,
I see you are an advanced learner. Thats pretty cool I think.
The suffix you are mentioning is -ebil, -abil and it is used to express ability.
görmek > gör > gör-ebil-mek : to be able to see
Ben gör-ebil-ir-im: I can see. Simple present tense

Assuming we have a very whose imperative is ending with a vowel. In this case we need to add the `y` buffer between two vowels.
yürümek > yürü > yürü-y-ebil-mek : to be able to walk
yürü-y-ebil-ir-sin: you can walk. Simple present tense

These are the ones you asked. "seni görebildiğim" was missing a definition so I added another word.

“sevdiğim kadar” > as much as I have loved

“sevebildiğim kadar” > as much as I can love

"seni görebildiğim kadar" > as much as I could see you

"seni görebildiğim zaman" > when I can see you

“bakabilir miyim?” means “may I look?”, right? Yes thats right.

"... can you tell me, please, how to learn to use practical my theoretical knowledge of grammar, this is my biggest problem. Do you think it will come spontaneous when I start to talk with people, instead of learning from books?"
Slavica, I`m one of those who doesnt belive on the importance of speaking. Daily speech has so many irregularities, so less vocabulary and is so unorganised I dont see the point why it should be better than reading story books. Certainly for some people this might be the way to go. After all many of us learn things in different ways. But generally speaking I find it very important to gain a feeling of the structure of sentences in written language. I really belive the soul of a language lies in the way how words come together.

For instance look at these sentences which are related to the recent issues in some ways:

"Seni sevdiğim kadar kimseyi sevmedim.
Seni daha çok görebilmeyi isterim.
Mutlu olmayı kim istemez?
Daha çok Türkçe öğrenmek istiyorum.
Arkadaşlarımla konuşabilmek istiyorum.
Onların söylediklerini anlayabilmek istiyorum. "

Reading many texts is the way to go I would say. Possibly short stories you like would be better. Speech will come on its own with time.
Vocabulary, basic grammer and the knowledge how to put the words together will be enough for a long time.
Pronouncitaion and detailed grammer are the less important things to worry I think.
When I started talking english with people I felt like I was already talking english for a long time but certainy I didnt. I had only read a lot. I made lots of mistakes when talking and I realised people are saying many words different than me. But this wasnt a problem. It was somewhat funny actually. And correcting these little mistakes was a piece of cake. I hope this helps.

Moha-ios and slavica liked this message
10.       erdinc
2151 posts
 16 Jul 2005 Sat 01:45 pm

More information about -ebil, -abil suffixes can be found here:


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