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Tenses inTurkish
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1.       erdinc
2151 posts
 30 Jan 2006 Mon 10:13 pm

I was trying to explain to Bod the Turkish tenses and I realised the existing sources were not suitable enough for this study. So here we have Turkish tenses once again shown my way:

Simple Tenses
- - 1.singular 2.singular 3.singular 1.plural 2.plural 3.plural
simple past -di geldim geldin geldi geldik geldiniz

geldi

/geldiler

aorist/simple present -er gelirim gelirsin gelir geliriz gelirsiniz

gelir

/gelirler

present continuous -iyor geliyorum geliyorsun geliyor geliyoruz geliyorsunuz geliyor /geliyorlar
reported past -miş gelmişim gelmişsin gelmiş gelmişiz gelmişsiniz gelmiş /gelmişler
future -ecek geleceğim geleceksin gelecek geleceğiz geleceksiniz gelecek /gelecekler
conditional -se gelsem gelsen gelse gelsek gelseniz

gelse

/gelseler

necessitive -meli gelmeliyim gelmelisin gelmeli gelmeliyiz gelmelisiniz gelmeli /gelmeliler
imperative - - gel gelsin -

gelin

geliniz

gelsin

/gelsinler

subjunctive - geleyim - - gelelim - -

We have three auxiliaries to make compound tenses from simple tenses. Now, one by one we will apply these three auxiliaries to the simple tenses.

Narrative Auxiliary -di
Reportive Auxiliary -miş
Conditional Auxiliary -se

 

 

Narrative Auxiliaries (-di) of Simple Tenses:

- - 1.singular 2.singular 3.singular 1.plural 2.plural 3.plural
simple past - - - - - - -
aorist/simple present -er+ -dı gelirdim < span style="font-size: x-small; font-family: Georgia;">gelirdin gelirdi gelirdik gelirdiniz

gelirdi

/gelirlerdi

present continuous -iyor+ -du geliyordum geliyordun geliyordu geliyorduk geliyordunuz

geliyordu

/geliyorlardı

reported past -miş+ -di gelmiştim gelmiştin gelmişti gelmiştik gelmiştiniz

gelmişti

/gelmişlerdi

future -ecek+ -di gelecektim gelecektin gelecekti gelecektik gelecektiniz gelecekti /geleceklerdi
conditional -se + -di
gelseydim gelseydin gelseydi gelseydik gelseydiniz

gelseydi

/gelselerdi

necessitive -meli + -di gelmeliydim gelmeliydin gelmeliydi gelmeliydik gelmeliydiniz

gelmeliydi

/gelmeliydiler

imperative - - - - - - -
subjunctive - - - - - - -

 

 

Reported (-miş ) Auxiliaries of Simple Tenses
- - 1.singular 2.singular 3.singular 1.plural 2.plural 3.plural
simple past - - - - - - -
aorist/simple present -er + -miş gelirmişim gelirmişsin gelirmiş gelirmişiz gelirmişsiniz

gelirmiş

/gelirlermiş

present continuous -iyor + -miş geliyormuşum geliyormuşsun geliyormuş geliyormuşuz geliyormuşsunuz

geliyormuş

/geliyorlarmış

reported past - - - - - - --
future -ecek + -miş gelecekmişim gelecekmişsin gelecekmiş gelecekmişiz gelecekmişsiniz

gelecekmiş

/geleceklermiş

conditional -se + -miş gelseymişim gelseymişsin gelseymiş gelseymişiz gelseymişsiniz

gelseymiş

/gelselermiş

necessitive -meli + -miş gelmeliymişim gelmeliymişsin gelmeliymiş gelmeliymişiz gelmeliymişsiniz

gelmeliymiş

/gelmelilermiş

imperative - - - - - - -
subjunctive - - - - - - -

 

 

Conditional (-se) Auxiliaries of Simple Tenses
- - 1.singular 2.singular 3.singular 1.plural 2.plural 3.plural
simple past -di + -se geldiysem geldiysen geldiyse geldiysek geldiyseniz geldiyse /geldilerse
aorist/simple present -er + -se gelirsem gelirsen gelirse gelirsek gelirseniz

gelirse

/gelirlerse

present continuous -iyor + -sa geliyorsam geliyorsan geliyorsa geliyorsak geliyorsanız geliyorsa /geliyorlarsa
reported past -miş + -se gelmişsem gelmişsen gelmişse gelmişsek gelmişseniz gelmişse /gelmişlerse
future -ecek + -se geleceksem geleceksen gelecekse geleceksek gelecekseniz gelecekse /geleceklerse
conditional - - - - - - -
necessitive -meli + -se gelmeliysem gelmeliysen gelmeliyse gelmeliysek gelmeliyseniz gelmeliyse /gelmeliyseler
imperative - - - - - - -
subjunctive - - - - - - -

Later I hope to add translations. Maybe I should remove conjugations and just put personal suffixes so the learners might find the conjugations themselves and the tables would be much smaller. But I´m not sure which way would be easier. At the beginning we had only simple tenses. Afterwards we have derived compound tenses using three different auxiliaries. The conditional auxiliary (-se) could ve applied to the compound tenses once again. This way theoretically it is possible to have double compound tenses but I will omit them as the modern tendency is towards this direction. I have also omitted some other tenses above wich aren´t included in modern Turkish. I have made some changes on the order of suffixes. Many sources show the third person plural suffix (-ler) in the wrong order. This order has changed with time and it is like above in modern Turkish. Some sources show a narrative simple past tense (geldiydim). There is no such tense in Turkish. It will be incorrect using them. Some sources suggest a narrative subjunctive (geleydim, geleydin, geleydi,...) but with time this tense is replaced with the narrative condition (gelseydim, gelseydin, gelseydi,...). So it is omited as well. These are some of the reasons why the other sources were not suitable. Please don´t quote this message if you want to post something.

2.       ladywriter
10 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 11:30 am

Most of you probably already know about this site, but if not, let me share it with you here. http://www.verbix.com/languages/turkish.shtml

If you have any comments please share them with me. I don't know the best approach to learning verb conjugation. One thing I found helpful about this site is that at the end of the conjugation of a particular verb, it lists other verbs that are conjugated in the same, or similar way.

3.       Elisa
0 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 12:46 pm

Quoting ladywriter:

Most of you probably already know about this site, but if not, let me share it with you here. http://www.verbix.com/languages/turkish.shtml

If you have any comments please share them with me.



With the little knowledge I have about verbs, I'm not really the right person to review Verbix. Still, even I found some mistakes in their conjugations, especially when it comes to vowel harmony.. So don't let verbix do all the thinking for you!

4.       bod
5999 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 02:11 pm

WoW!!!
That is very helpful Erdin禮 - 禮ok teşekkl翹r ederim

Should I assume that the extra tenses/moods shown by WinMekMak in Extended Mode are largely unused or becoming rarer???

5.       erdinc
2151 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 02:43 pm

Hi Bod,
winmekmak has some modifiers. These are on the lower list shown in purple. The first three modifiers are the ones I have mentioned above. The last two modifiers -diyse and -mişse are the ones I have omitted.

example:
main tense: present continuous, modifier -diyse:
gelmek: geliyorduysam, geliyorduysan, ...

main tense: present continuous, modifier -mişse:
gelmek: geliyormuşsam, geliyormuşsan, ...

These double modifiers -diyse (-di + -se) and (-miş + -se) can be omitted.

6.       bod
5999 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 02:48 pm

I was thinking more about -sene , -mekte and -esi

-mekte especially I have seen used in written text and my grammar book says it is becoming more common in daily speech.

7.       erdinc
2151 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 02:55 pm

ladywriter,
thank you for suggesting a website. The link you gave is already in our list in number two:

http://www.turkishclass.com/forumTitle_6_1448

Of course I have checked them all because I had to. I have also checked many other sources in Turkish before I gave the last form to my tables you see above. Even the sources in Turkish have many mistakes let alone websites created by foreigners. There is no standart chart on this field. The version you see above is not available anywhere else.

I hope it will make it easier than verbix for the learners to learn the tenses. Verbix and my charts are different in a number of ways. First of all I havent yet included the question, negative and negative question conjugations.

Other than that verbix following some old dated Turkish sources lists the third person plural personal suffix -lar in the incorrect place.
It suggests geletiler, gelecekmişler, gelecekseler etc. but it should be the other way. I have listed them as geleceklerdi, geleceklermiş, geleceklerse,... with the ler in front of the tense suffix.

Other than that there are many incorrect and outdated entries on verbix. Of course this is not a mistake by the people who created verbix but the Turkish sources are outdated as well.
For instance verbix following Turkish sources suggest the following:
Subjunctive mood tenses

ben geleyim
sen gelesin
o gele
biz gelelim
siz gelesiniz
onlar geleler

I have omitted these except both first persons: ben geleyim, biz gelelim. We don't use the others. We don't say, "sen gelesin", "o gele", "siz gelesiniz", "onlar geleler". These are replaced with imperatives: "Sen gel", "o gelsin", "siz gelin", "onlar gelsin" (or "onlar gelsinler").

If verbix or any other place had the correct version of tenses there wouldnt be a need for me to create new charts. But I couldn't find a single correct chart anywhere.

If you check my imperatives and subjunctives on the first table you will see that they two make a whole tense together. They could be put together with a single name. As far as I know this is the first time the problem with imperatives and subjunctives is solved this way. There is an argument for years about the imperatives and subjunctives.

Erdin禮

8.       damalianti
84 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 04:15 pm

Erdinc,

Thank you for your explanations, they are so helpful.

9.       erdinc
2151 posts
 31 Jan 2006 Tue 04:41 pm

Quoting bod:

I was thinking more about -sene , -mekte and -esi

-mekte especially I have seen used in written text and my grammar book says it is becoming more common in daily speech.



Hi bod,
yes, as you say, the -mekte suffix is a present continuous suffix like -iyor. Some time ago we had talked about it here:
http://www.turkishclass.com/forumTitle_6_402
Yes it is becoming common. I could add it maybe.

-sene as a version of imperative is common:
sen git : you go
sen gitsene : you go (I'm surprised/dissapointed/angry because of you refusing to go so far, or suggesting me to go)

-esi :
"Hep b繞yle koşasın."
The tendency is towards omiting this suffix as a mood of verb.

10.       ladywriter
10 posts
 02 Feb 2006 Thu 01:50 am

Quoting erdinc:

ladywriter,
thank you for suggesting a website. The link you gave is already in our list in number two:

http://www.turkishclass.com/forumTitle_6_1448

Of course I have checked them all because I had to. I have also checked many other sources in Turkish before I gave the last form to my tables you see above. Even the sources in Turkish have many mistakes let alone websites created by foreigners. There is no standart chart on this field. The version you see above is not available anywhere else.

I hope it will make it easier than verbix for the learners to learn the tenses.

Erdin禮



Thank you Erdin禮, I hadn't seen that list of links. I had just checked the list of sites posted in "links" from the home page. I am new, and interested in understanding the process of learning Turkish. I am finding it a daunting task to learn all the verbs, and their conjugations. It's good to learn by taking smaller bites of information at a time....heheh. Memorizing the verbs(and vocabulary) is much easier if I can see them in a sentence. That's why I really appreciated your "Alyşe" story. Thanks again.

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