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Nouns
1.       selin21
206 posts
 06 Mar 2008 Thu 05:01 pm

Turkish Alphabet

A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ãœ V Y Z
a b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n o ö p r s ş u ü t u ü v y z

Vowel Letters : A,E,I,İ,O,Ö,U,Ãœ
Example Nouns
A : Aslan = Lion
E : Etek = Skirt
I : Işık = Light
İ : İyilik = Goodness
O : Oda = Room
Ö : Ördek = Duck
U : Ulus = Nation
Ü : Ülke = Country

Consonant Letters B C Ç D F G Ğ H J K L M N P R S Ş T V Y Z
Example Nouns
B : Bilgi = Knowlege
C : Cenk = War
Ç : Çiçek = Flower
D : Düğün = Wedding
F : Fayda = Benefit
G : Göz = Eye
Ğ : Yoğurt =Yoghurt (Turkish words do not start with "ğ" letter.) "Ğ" makes the vowel before it longer.E.g: Yoğurt is pronounced as Yoourt.
H : Hafta = Week
J : Jeton = Token
K : Kedi = Cat
L : Leylek = Stork
M : Mendil = Handkerchief
N : Neşe = Cheer
P : Pişmanlık = Regret
R : Renk = Colour
S : Ses = Sound , Voice
Ş : Şarkı = Song
T : Takı = Jewelry
V : Vatan = Homeland
Y : Yaşam = Life
Z : Zeytin = Olive


To Syllable

Number of syllable in a word is equal to number of vowel letters of word.

As_lan =2
E_tek =2
I_şık=2
İ_yi_lik=3
O_da=2
Ör_dek=2
U_lus=2
Ãœl_ke=2
Bil_ge=2
Cenk=1
Çi_çek=2
Dü_ğün=2
Fay_da=2
Göz=1
Yo_ğurt=2


2.       selin21
206 posts
 06 Mar 2008 Thu 05:02 pm

To Make Nouns Plural

"ler" or "lar" is added to noun to make it plural.

if last vowel of noun is one of "a,ı,o,u" then it must be "lar"
E.g: Aslan = Aslanlar
Işık = Işıklar
Jeton = Jetonlar
Ulus = Uluslar

if last vowel of noun is one of "e,i,ö,ü" then it must be "ler"
E.g : Ãœlke = Ãœlkeler
Kedi = Kediler
Göz = Gözler
Düğün = Düğünler


Five Noun Cases

1-Without any suffix (Yalın Durumu) : E.g: Aslan, Ses, Mendil

2-Accusative Case "the" ( Belirme Durumu "ı,i,u,ü" ) :

if last vowel of noun is one of "a,ı" then it must be "ı"
E.g : Aslan = Aslanı
if last vowel of noun is one of "e,i" then it must be "i"
E.g : Ses = Sesi
Mendil = Mendili
if last vowel of noun is one of "o,u" then it must be "u"
E.g : Jeton = Jetonu
Ulus = Ulusu
if last vowel of noun is one of "ö,ü" then it must be "ü"
E.g : Göz = Gözü
Düğün = Düğünü

İf noun ends with a vowel than y letter is added too. (yı,yi,yu,yü)
Examples:
Fayda = Faydayı
Şarkı = Şarkıyı
Ãœlke = Ãœlkeyi
Kedi = Kediyi
Su = Suyu
Süngü = Süngüyü

if noun ends with "nk" then "nk" turns into "ng"
Cenk = Cengi

if noun ends with "rt" then rt turns into "rd"
Kart = Kardı

if noun is longer one syllable and if noun ends with p,ç,t,k they turn into b,c,d,ğ
if noun ends with "p" it turns into "b"
Kitap = Kitabı
if noun ends with "ç" it turns into "c"
Ağaç = Ağacı
if noun ends with "t" it turns into "d"
Yoğurt = Yoğurdu
if noun ends with "k" it turns into "ğ"
Işık = Işığı


3-Dative Case "to" ( Yönelme Durumu "e,a" ) :

if last vowel of noun is one of "a,ı,o,u" then it must be "a"
E.g : Aslan = Aslana
Jeton = Jetona
Ulus = Ulusa
if last vowel of noun is one of "e,i,ö,ü" then it must be "e"
E.g : Ses = Sese
Mendil = Mendile
Göz = Göze
Düğün = Düğüne

İf noun ends with a vowel than y letter is added too. (ya,ye)
Examples:
Fayda = Faydaya
Şarkı = Kapıya
Ãœlke = Ãœlkeye
Kedi = Kediye
Su = Suya
Süngü = Süngüye

if noun ends with "nk" then "nk" turns into "ng"
Cenk = Cenge

if noun ends with "rt" then rt turns into "rd"
Kart = Karda

if noun is longer one syllable and if noun ends with p,ç,t,k they turn into b,c,d,ğ
if noun ends with "p" it turns into "b"
Kitap = Kitaba
if noun end with "ç" it turns into "c"
Ağaç = Ağaca
if noun ends with "t" it turns into "d"
Yoğurt = Yoğurda
if noun ends with "k" it turns into "ğ"
Işık = Işığa

4-Existential Case "at,in,on" ( Bulunma Durumu "de,da,te,ta" ) :

if last vowel of noun is one of "a,ı,o,u" then it must be "da"
E.g : Aslan = Aslanda
Jeton = Jetonda

if last vowel of noun is one of "e,i,ö,ü" then it must be "de"
E.g :
Mendil = Mendilde
Göz = Gözde
Düğün = Düğünde

İf noun ends with one of (" ç,f,t,h,s,k,p,ş") then it must be "te" or "ta"
if last vowel of noun is one of "a,ı,o,u" then it must be "ta"
E.g :
Yoğurt = Yoğurtta

if last vowel of noun is one of "e,i,ö,ü" then it must be "te"
E.g :
Çiçek = Çiçekte


5-Departure Case "from" ( Ayrılma Durumu "den,dan,ten,tan" ) :

if last vowel of noun is one of "a,ı,o,u" then it must be "dan"
E.g : Aslan = Aslandan
Jeton = Jetondan

if last vowel of noun is one of "e,i,ö,ü" then it must be "den"
E.g :
Mendil = Mendilden
Göz = Gözden
Düğün = Düğünden

İf noun ends with one of (" ç,f,t,h,s,k,p,ş") then it must be "ten" or "tan"
if last vowel of noun is one of "a,ı,o,u" then it must be "tan"
E.g :
Yoğurt = Yoğurttan

if last vowel of noun is one of "e,i,ö,ü" then it must be "ten"
E.g :
Çiçek = Çiçekten


Not: İf noun is plural, noun cases are added after "ler,lar" suffix.
E.g: Yoğurtlar
Yoğurtları
Yoğurtlara
Yoğurtlarda
Yoğurtlardan

Çiçekler
Çiçekleri
Çiçeklere
Çiçeklerde
Çiçeklerden


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