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All about Turkish language with explanations
1.       tristerecuerdos
518 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 03:14 am

Hello! Earlier today, my friend and I found a really helpful post, All about The Turkish Language; It was really helpful and easy for me! I guess It would also be easy and helpful to some learners too. Most of the things in this thread, are already in the lessons section. But I guess putting them ll together is easy, clear and better! I hope you like it. 

 

Turkish is a language of the Ural-Altaic family. It´s quite logical, with few exceptional rules and no genders, but its agglutinative structure is so different from Indo-European languages that speakers of those languages may find its grammar a challenge to learn at first.

 

(Agglutinative means that words and sentences are made by adding suffixes to a root-word.)

 



Edited (5/26/2012) by tristerecuerdos [misspelling]

2.       tristerecuerdos
518 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 03:15 am

Suffixes: 

A Turkish word starts with a short root (such as git-, ´go´. One or more suffixes are added to modify the root (gitti, ´s/he went´. English uses only a few suffixes, such as -´s for possessive, -s or -es for plural, but Turkish has dozens of suffixes.You can make whole sentences in Turkish out of one little word root and a lot of suffixes.

NOUN SUFFIXES

 

Plural: -lar, -ler

Bankalar, banks

Oteller, hotels

 

To, Toward: -a, -e (or -ya, -ye)

Bankaya, to the bank

Otele, to the hotel

 

From: -dan, -den

Bankadan, from the bank

Otelden, from the hotel

 

Possessive: -ın, -in, -nın, or -nin

Bankanın, the bank´s

Otelin, the hotel´s

 

With: -lı, -li, -lu, -lü

Et, meat; etli, with meat

Süt, milk; sütlü, with milk

 

Without: -sız,-siz,-suz, -süz

Et, meat; etsiz, without meat, meatless

Süt, milk; sütsüz, without milk

 

You may see -ı, -i, -u or -ü, -sı, -si, -su or -sü added to any noun. An ev is a house; but the ev that Mehmet lives in is Mehmet´in evi. 

 

3.       tristerecuerdos
518 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 03:16 am

VERB SUFFIXES

 

Infinitive: -mak, -mek

Almak, to take or buy

Gitmek, to go

 

Simple present: -ar, -er, -ır, -ir, -ur, -ür 

Alır, he/she/it takes or buys

Gider, he/she/it goes

 

Future: -acak, -ecek, -acağ-, -eceğ-

Alacak, he/she/it will take, buy

Gidecek, he/she/it will go

 

Simple past: -dı, -di, -du, -dü

Aldı, he/she/it took, bought

Gitti, he/she/it went

 

Continuous: -ıyor-, -iyor- (like English ´-ing´

Alıyor, he/she/it is taking, buying

Gidiyor, he/she/it is going

 

Question: -mı, -mi, -mu, -mü

Alıyor mu? Is he/she/it taking (it)?

Gidecek mi? Will he/she/it go?

 

First Person Singular (I):-ım, -im, -um, -üm

Alırım, I take

 

Second Person Singular (you-informal): -sın, -sin, -sun, -sün

Alırsın, You take

 

Third Person Singular (he/she/it): (no suffix)

Alır, he/she/it takes

 

First Person Plural (we): -ız, -iz, -uz,-üz

Alırız, we take

 

Second Person Plural (you-formal): -sınız, -siniz, -sunuz,-sünüz

Alırsınız, You (plural) take; or You (singular-formal) take

 

Third Person Plural (they): -lar, -ler

Alırlar, They take.

 

 

4.       tristerecuerdos
518 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 03:18 am

WORD ORDER

Nouns and adjectives usually come first, followed by the verb. The subject of the sentence is often the final suffix (unless the sentence is a question):

 

İstanbul´a gidecegim, I´m going to Istanbul.

 

Halı almak istiyorum, I want to buy (take) a carpet (literally ´Carpet to buy want I´ 

 

 

 

THE FUN BEGINS

Now you can slap a lot of suffixes together and get Afyonkarahisarlılastıramadıklarımızdan mısınız? It´s actually a word, and also a complete sentence! But, it must be admitted, it was made up just to show off the agglutinative facility of Turkish.

 

What does it mean? "Are you from among that group of people whom we attempted to make to resemble the citizens of Afyonkarahisar, but were unable to do so?"

 

Yeah, right.

 

*alıntıdır/its taken from a web site

 

 

i hope it helps with your Turkish

And I am not a teacher! I´m just a learner, with respect to all the teachers and translators here. I just wanted to post this to help learners.

Thank you.

5.       Abla
3647 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 11:18 am

Afyonkarahisar|lı|las|tır|a|ma|dık|ları|mız|dan mı|sınız

 

Sorry, I couldn´t stop myself doing that.

6.       Abla
3647 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 11:48 am

Your headline promises the whole truth. This is only half of it. Or even less. Look.

 

Quote:

First Person Singular (I):-ım, -im, -um, -üm or -m

Alırım, I take

al|dı|m ´I took´

 

Second Person Singular (you-informal): -sın, -sin, -sun, -sün or -n

Alırsın, You take

al|dı|n ´you took´

 

Third Person Singular (he/she/it): (no suffix) I agree

Alır, he/she/it takes

al|dı ´he took´

 

First Person Plural (we): -ız, -iz, -uz,-üz or -k

Alırız, we take

al|dı|k ´we took´

 

Second Person Plural (you-formal): -sınız, -siniz, -sunuz,-sünüz or simply -niz, -nız

Alırsınız, You (plural) take; or You (singular-formal) take

al|dı|nız ´you took´

 

Third Person Plural (they): -lar, -ler Ok

Alırlar, They take.

al|di|lar ´they took´

 

 

There is another set of personal endings used after past tense -di and the attached particle -se (if clause).

 

In addition, there are two more sets of personal endings for imperative and subjunctive. You are going to need them all. Don´t get discouraged, the system is quite simple. I just thought you should understand this from the beginning since I struggled with it for a long time.

 

I like your attitude btw.



Edited (5/26/2012) by Abla

7.       tristerecuerdos
518 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 07:09 pm

 

Quoting Abla

Afyonkarahisar|lı|las|tır|a|ma|dık|ları|mız|dan mı|sınız

 

Sorry, I couldn´t stop myself doing that.

 

Its fine

 

8.       tristerecuerdos
518 posts
 26 May 2012 Sat 07:11 pm

 

Quoting Abla

 

 

 

There is another set of personal endings used after past tense -di and the attached particle -se (if clause).

 

In addition, there are two more sets of personal endings for imperative and subjunctive. You are going to need them all. Don´t get discouraged, the system is quite simple. I just thought you should understand this from the beginning since I struggled with it for a long time.

 

I like your attitude btw.

 

Thank you and I´m glad!

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