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The -lik [4x] suffix
1.       Fiskje88
16 posts
 09 Aug 2013 Fri 12:19 am

Hello all,

 

I´m sure that somewhere around here this question has been asked, but I can´t find a topic about this.

 

The thing is, I study Turkish from a course book that covers a lot of aspects of the Turkish language, but not all. One thing I´ve noticed is that words can take on a -lik suffix, but my book doesn´t explain anything about its usage and its meaning.

 

What I´ve noticed is that both nouns and adjectives can take the -lik suffix:

 

zarif --> zariflik

salata --> salatalık

mutlu --> mutluluk

göz --> gözlük

 

What I can´t really figure out is how the -lik [4x] suffix changes the root noun or adjective. This is my hypothesis:

 

- If the root is a noun, then the -lik suffix further specifies the root noun.

For instance, göz is eye and gözlük is glasses. Glasses form a part of the eye, as it were. Same goes for salata (salad / lettuce) and salatalık (cucumber).

 

- If the root is an adjective, then the -lik suffix changes the root adjective into a noun.

For instance, mutlu is happy and mutluluk is happiness. Same goes for zarif (elegant) and zariflik (elegance).

 

Am I right in this, or is there more to it?

 

Thanks for the help,

Marco

2.       gokuyum
5049 posts
 09 Aug 2013 Fri 01:05 am

http://www.turkishlanguage.co.uk/nouns.htm

Formation of nouns from adjectives - the suffix -lik

This suffix is vowel harmonized forms are -lik -lık -luk -lük.
The suffix -lik is very heavily used in Turkish. It has four main uses in Turkish as follows;

1. Formation of Abstract and Collective Nouns

The main use of the suffix -lik is to form Abstract Nouns from Adjectives.
güzel - beautiful - becomes - güzellik - beauty
mutlu - happy - becomes - mutluluk - happiness
iyi - good - becomes - iyilik - goodness
çocuk - child - becomes - çocukluk - childhood
zor - difficult becomes zorluk - difficulty, complication
It should be noted that the English Abstract nouns end in -ness, -tion, -ity, etc (generally)

Of course these abstract nouns can be further suffixed in Turkish according to their function in meaning:
mutluluğum - [mutluluğ-um] - my happiness
Hepimiz, çocukluğumuzu mutluluk içinde geçirdik. O zamanlarda mutluluğum sonsuzdu.
All of us passed our childhood in happiness. At that time my happiness was endless
- [Hep-imiz, çocuk-luğ-umuz-u mut-lu-luk iç-i-nde geç-ir-dik. O zaman-lar-da mutlu-luğ-um son-suz-du.]

Thanks to Murat Açık for corrections to the sections above and below - JG, December 2012

Formation of Collective Nouns
genç - young becomes gençlik - youth
yaşlı - old becomes yaşlılık - age
insan - person/human becomes insanlık - human-kind
kişi - person/individual becomes kişilik - personality/identity
Bakan Minister becomes Bakanlık - Ministry
balık - fish becomes balıkçı - fisherman becomes Balıkçılık - Fishing Club, Group, Association
This last example shows that noun suffixes can be chained to produce further extended meanings.

Thanks to Kadir Demirel for suggestions in this section - JG - Nov. 2006

2. Forming nouns of Usage

When adding -lik to concrete nouns or verb stems it forms nouns and adjectives meaning - suitable for.. intended for... place of... 
tuz - salt - becomes - tuzluk - salt cellar
biber - pepper - becomes - biberlik - pepper shaker
göz - eye - becomes - gözlük - spectacles
kira - hire - becomes - kiralık - for hire
yağmur - raın - becomes - yağmurluk - raincoat, mackintosh, oilskin

3. Forming Nouns of Location

Bakan - Minister - becomes - Bakanlık - Ministry
çamaşır - linen, laundry items - becomes - çamaşırlık - a laundry
orman - forest - becomes - ormanlık - forest place
In this example of - forest - we can see that Turkish uses -lik to make a Substantive Noun of Location, as in the following example:
O tepenin arkasında büyük bir ormanlık bulunur - There is a large forest (to be found) behind that hill. Here the word - ormanlık - is used as a general Substantive Noun of Location. We may go on to talk about this particular - orman - itself: O ormanda çok yabani hayvan varmış. - It seems there are many wild animals in that forest.

Many place names - (have a look at a Turkish map) - often end in the suffix -lik. One that springs to mind is Ayvalık - Place of the Quince - [ayva], there is also a place near Çeşme called Değirmenlik - Place of the Mill - [değirmen]

It is difficult to translate this suffix directly into English, we can only say - "Quince" or "Quinceville" and "Milltown" or "Millhill" or whatever. Arising from the above we can also form nouns of "Place of" as follows
elmalık - apple orchard - from - elma - apple
sebzelik - vegetable garden, stall - from - sebze vegetable
çiçeklik - flower garden, stall - from - çiçek - flower
kitaplık - book case - from - kitap - book

4. The Suffix -lik with Numbers:

A number is normally used as an adjective thus the number 10 (as an adjective) - on yumurta - ten eggs. Turkish changes numbers and numeric expressions into nouns by the addition of the -lik suffix thus the number 10 - on - becomes - onluk - the amount of ten. This is like saying Lend me a "tenner" in English, where the number 10 has become a noun of the amount ten. The suffix -lik is often added to counted nouns to produce a complex counted noun. Let us take our example of on yumurta -ten eggs. If we say I want a ten egg box. in English we understand that our requirement is "A box that will contain the amount of ten eggs."

Let us look at some possibilities in Turkish:
on yumurta bir kutu - ten eggs one box - this example has no meaning in Turkish - it is just two items - "ten eggs" and "one box". Turkish will use a counted noun - on yumurtalık - ten eggs-amount - thus - I want a ten egg box - becomes: On yumurtalık bir kutu istiyorum - [Lit: I want a ten egg-amount box.]
If we want to say - I want a box of ten eggs - the Turkish uses the -li - furnished with, containing - suffix:
On yumurtalı bir kutu istiyorum - I want a box containing ten eggs.
İki kişilik çadır var mı? - [Lit: Is there a tent of two person-amount?] - in English - Is there a double tent?
Evet var. Kaç günlük ? - [Lit: Yes, there is. How many day-amount?] - in English - Yes there is. For how many days?

An "eggy" question

Here is an "eggy" question from one of our Turkish friends, showing the diference in Turkish logic:
Shouldn´t that be? - "I want a ten egged box" - Cafer Bey by Email

My answer: To your suggestion:
"I want a ten egged box". I´m sorry I can not agree, I feel it should be "I want a ten egg box", as I have written.
If we say it your way, it makes the box itself "modified" as in "I want a black coloured box" or "I want a silk lined box".
But a "ten egg box" describes a box that can contain up to "ten eggs" ; that is how it is understood. Let us not forget that supermarkets in England sell their eggs in "egg boxes" not in "egged boxes"
To understand the difference "I want a three key box" - a box to put three keys into, and "I want a three keyed box" - a box which need three keys to open it.

3.       si++
3785 posts
 09 Aug 2013 Fri 10:37 am

 

Quoting Fiskje88

Hello all,

 

I´m sure that somewhere around here this question has been asked, but I can´t find a topic about this.

 

The thing is, I study Turkish from a course book that covers a lot of aspects of the Turkish language, but not all. One thing I´ve noticed is that words can take on a -lik suffix, but my book doesn´t explain anything about its usage and its meaning.

 

What I´ve noticed is that both nouns and adjectives can take the -lik suffix:

 

zarif --> zariflik

salata --> salatalık

mutlu --> mutluluk

göz --> gözlük

 

What I can´t really figure out is how the -lik [4x] suffix changes the root noun or adjective. This is my hypothesis:

 

- If the root is a noun, then the -lik suffix further specifies the root noun.

For instance, göz is eye and gözlük is glasses. Glasses form a part of the eye, as it were. Same goes for salata (salad / lettuce) and salatalık (cucumber).

 

- If the root is an adjective, then the -lik suffix changes the root adjective into a noun.

For instance, mutlu is happy and mutluluk is happiness. Same goes for zarif (elegant) and zariflik (elegance).

 

Am I right in this, or is there more to it?

 

Thanks for the help,

Marco

 

this (-lik) suffix is probably the most productive suffix of Turkish. It can come after almost anything.

it sometimes is equal to -ness -dom -ship -ity suffixes (usually can be approximated as x-lik = being in x state):

kim = who
kimlik = identity

nite = how (quale)
nitelik = quality

nice = how much (quanto/quante)
nicelik = quantity

gerçek = real
gerçeklik = reality

arkadaşlık = friendship

krallık = kingdom

hastalık = sickness

and it may be used after a clause sometimes:
sanki sizi bir yerden görmüşlüğüm var
=
I have a feeling that I saw you somewhere before

lit.
as if there is my seeing you somewhere before

 

Sometimes its scope (notice bold text below) makes difference:
Bir gecelik = for one night
Bir gecelik = a night dress

TheNemanja, RobbieP and Abla liked this message
4.       Abla
3647 posts
 09 Aug 2013 Fri 11:32 am

Quote: si++

and it may be used after a clause sometimes:
sanki sizi bir yerden görmüşlüğüm var
=
I have a feeling that I saw you somewhere before

lit.
as if there is my seeing you somewhere before

 

These are foxy. I guess the same suffix shows in the idiom of the type duy|maz|lık|tan gelmek ´to pretend not to have heard´ also.

 

I have noticed LIK is very easily connected with professional names etc.

 

                         hemşirelik yapmak ´work as a nurse´

                         askerlik yapmak ´serve in the army´

                         öğretmenlik yapmak ´teach´.

 

In numerous constructions two very productive derivators CI (forming professional names and other stuff like that) and LIK (changing it into the name of that special action) combine:

 

                         yolculuk etmek ´travel´

                         kapıcılık yapmak ´work as a doorman´

                         çapulculuk yapmak ´protest´.

 

In this function, LIK seems to be very productive also. I wonder if there are any limits at all.

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