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Combining -leş, -tir, -il etc ...
1.       Tazx1
434 posts
 22 Jan 2019 Tue 12:26 am

I have great difficulty in understanding how to make compound adjectives using ... -leş, -tir, -il etc. forexample GERÇEK-LEŞ-TIR-İL-MİŞ .... Please can a knowlegable person point me in the right direction or provide guidance.  I am a native speaker of English ... but not familiar with English grammar at all!!

2.       qdemir
801 posts
 22 Jan 2019 Tue 02:52 pm

-leş makes verbs from nouns. It means become.

-tir forms verbs from verbs in the sense of causative.

-il forms passive verbs.

 

You may or may not use these suffixes before  -miş, which makes adjectives from verbs.

Look at these examples:

 

iyi pişmiş (< piş) bir pirzola 

taze sıkılmış (< sık) portakal suyu

dondurulmuş (< don) yiyecekler

keşfedilmemiş (< keşfet) topraklar 

 

Look also at this idiom:

 

Ölmüş eşek kurttan korkmaz.

 

3.       qdemir
801 posts
 22 Jan 2019 Tue 02:52 pm

-leş makes verbs from nouns. It means become.

-tir forms verbs from verbs in the sense of causative.

-il forms passive verbs.

 

You may or may not use these suffixes before  -miş, which makes adjectives from verbs.

Look at these examples:

 

iyi pişmiş (< piş) bir pirzola 

taze sıkılmış (< sık) portakal suyu

dondurulmuş (< don) yiyecekler

keşfedilmemiş (< keşfet) topraklar 

 

Look also at this idiom:

 

Ölmüş eşek kurttan korkmaz.

 

4.       Tazx1
434 posts
 22 Jan 2019 Tue 10:20 pm

Thank you qdemir ... my problem is when these modifiers come in the same noun one after the other ... as in ´Gerçekleştirilmis´!!! ... just an example!  And to add to difficulty ... sometimes it involves deploying ´Double Negatives´.  Things appear simple for a ´Native´ speaker of Turkish ... but a ´Foreign´ learner and a prize idiot like me needs a whole chapter that explains and provides exempler sentences.  Just ennunciation of dry rules leave a void.  Is there a ´Link´ or a source that I might access.  But thank you explaining at least one thing viz.,You may or may not use these suffixes before  -miş, which makes adjectives from verbs. This has been somewhat helpful. Thanks.



Edited (Jan 22) by Tazx1 [typo error]

5.       qdemir
801 posts
 23 Jan 2019 Wed 12:18 am

Check out https://www.turkishlanguage.co.uk.  

You may also like to check out my grammar and vocabulary books at https://www.easyturkishgrammar.com.

 

6.       Tazx1
434 posts
 23 Jan 2019 Wed 06:21 pm

Thank you very much for your kind help.  I will visit the ´Links´ you suggest.

Regards.  

Tazx1

7.       S.S.K. La
10 posts
 11 Jun 2019 Tue 06:30 am

Well you go suffix by suffix and you get the meaning. 

Gerçek- true, real.

-leş- to become (nouns to verbs) Türkleşmek- to become Turk

-tir- causative- to cause to. Easiest example is the verb to kill: Öldürmek- which literally translates to ´To cause to die´.

-il- reflexive- Sevmek- to love, Sevilmek- to be loved. 

-miş- something you personally did not witness, you just heard it. Or, heard past tense. (Duyulan geçmiş zaman)

So your exact translation: Gerçekleştirilmiş- İt was caused to become real (But you did not witness it). 

8.       tunci
7145 posts
 11 Jun 2019 Tue 10:40 pm

 

Quoting S.S.K. La

Well you go suffix by suffix and you get the meaning. 

Gerçek- true, real.

-leş- to become (nouns to verbs) Türkleşmek- to become Turk

-tir- causative- to cause to. Easiest example is the verb to kill: Öldürmek- which literally translates to ´To cause to die´.

-il- reflexive- Sevmek- to love, Sevilmek- to be loved. 

-miş- something you personally did not witness, you just heard it. Or, heard past tense. (Duyulan geçmiş zaman)

So your exact translation: Gerçekleştirilmiş- İt was caused to become real (But you did not witness it). 

 

just wanted to correct one thing ,

il--  this suffix is not reflexive , it is passive suffix. 

gerçekleştir-İL-miş.. --- it was caused to happen/come true (by someone or some people ) --(I heard, somebody said)  

 

Reflexive mood verbs are --- Verbs that whose direct object is the same as its subject.             

Ben yıkandım. --I washed (myself)  

BEN--------SUBJECT 

BEN  -------DİRECT OBJECT 

------------------------

In ´´gerçekleştirilmiş ´´ the action was done by someone else, therefore it is passive verb. (so the suffix ´´il´´ is passive voice ending ) 


9.       Mushin
68 posts
 21 Jun 2019 Fri 09:17 pm

-il can be used for reflexive mood at times:

 

eğ-il-mek (eğilip yerden aldım)

diz-il-mek (millet yolun kenarına dizilmişti)

ser-il-mek (yatağa serilmiş yatıyor)

...

10.       S.S.K. La
10 posts
 23 Jun 2019 Sun 07:04 pm

 

Quoting tunci

 

 

just wanted to correct one thing ,

il--  this suffix is not reflexive , it is passive suffix. 

gerçekleştir-İL-miş.. --- it was caused to happen/come true (by someone or some people ) --(I heard, somebody said)  

 

Reflexive mood verbs are --- Verbs that whose direct object is the same as its subject.             

Ben yıkandım. --I washed (myself)  

BEN--------SUBJECT 

BEN  -------DİRECT OBJECT 

------------------------

In ´´gerçekleştirilmiş ´´ the action was done by someone else, therefore it is passive verb. (so the suffix ´´il´´ is passive voice ending ) 


 

Yeah I meant passive and İ thought reflexive for a bit, it was 6:30 in the morning. I made the confusion, because my brain was thinking of üzmek- üzülmek initially, but İ thought sevmek was a better example so İ used that, forgetting that İ´m talking about passive, not reflexive and also that in gerçekleştirilmek -il is of course passive mood. Neyse, I know the difference already, but thank you for the correction, the others shouldn´t learn wrong. 

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