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Simple Present Tense I - REVISED AND EDITED

 

 

Welcome to the lesson again. At previous lesson, we made an entrence for the usage of verbs and we have learnd positive/negative forms of Imperative Mood. Imperative Mood was first step for us, because it is the simplest form of a verb. Now, let´s start to learn complicated verb forms. Our second step is going to be learning Simple Present Tense.

 

In English, we use Simple Present Tense without using any suffixes (except "s" suffix for he/she/it) and we use the simplest forms of verbs. But in Turkish, this is not like that.

 

When we want to creat a verb such as "I go", we follow these three steps

 

1) We detect the verb root/stem and we seperate stem and infitinty suffix (-mek/-mak)

 

2) Then we add "Simple Present Tense Suffix" nearby the verb root/stem and we handle "Main Simple Present Tense Form of Verb, shortly Main Form."

 

3) Then we congjugate this Main Form by Personal Endings and we create our sentence.

Let´s start.

 

The main Simple Present Suffix is "-r" suffix. If a verb ends with o vowel, we directly put "-r". But, if a verb ends with consonant, we add vowel between last consonant and "-r" suffix which we choose according to the vowel Harmony. Let´s see this table:

 

 

Last Vowel

Simple Present Form Suffix

a, ı

-(a)r

e, i

-(e)r

i, e

-(i)r (this is only for “bilmek” and "gelmek")

u

-(u)r

ö, ü

-(ü)r

 

 

Simple Form or Main Form for Present Tense is also Present Tense Conjugation of 3rd Singular Pronoun. When we add one of these suffixes nearby the verb root/stem, we gain both Present Tense Conjugation of 3rd Singular Pronoun and Main Form of Verb for Present Tense. Because we conjuagte this form for other pronouns. First, lets handle the Main Form of Present Tense for verbs, which is also going to be Present Tense Conjugation of 3rd Singular Pronoun.

 

Let´s look at "Yapmak" verb, which means "to do, to make"

 

Verb root is "yap" . What is the last vowel? Last vowel of this verb is also its only vowel and it is "a". Look at the table. What happens if last vowel of a verb is "a"? We add -(a)r nearby the verb root/stem.

 

Yap + ar ! : He, she, it does!

 

Let´s do this for "Bakmak" which means "to look".

 

Verb root/stem is "bak" and its last and only vowel is "a".

Bak + ar ! : He, she, it looks!

 

Now, let´s find the Simple/Main Forms of verbs below:

 

Bakmak (to look) , okumak (to read) , yazmak (to write) , yemek (to eat) , içmek (to drink) , atmak (to throw) , gitmek (to go) , kapatmak (to close) , bilmek (to know) , gelmek (to come) :

 

Bak + ar ! : He, she, it looks!

 

Oku + r : He, she, it reads.

 

Yaz + ar : He, she, it writes.

 

Ye + r : He, she, it eats.

 

İç + er : He, she, it drinks.

 

At + ar : He, she, it throws.

 

Gid + er : He, she, it goes (t became d)

 

Kapat + ır : He, she, it closes (Kapat is an exception and receives -(ı)r.)

 

Bil + ir : He, she, it knows. (Bil is an exception and receives -(i)r.)

 

Gel + ir : He, she, it comes. (Gel is an exception and recieves -(i)r.)

 

Let´s look the Present Tense forms of Other Pronouns. I will tell conjugation for each Personal Pronoun. Let´s start:

 

1) Present Tense for "Ben" (I am) Pronoun.

 

When we want to say "I go" or "I do" in Turkish, we should follow the steps below:

 

a) First, find the Present Tense form of 3rd Singular Pronoun, which we also called Main Form for Present Tense.

 

b) And then, conjugate it according to the Personal Endings of "ben". Let´s remember the Personal Endings of "ben" with a table below:

 

R.Pronoun/Last Vowel - Suffix

   Meaning

If last vowel is  “a,ı”

If last vowel is “e,i”

If last vowel is  “o, u”

If last vowel is

“ö, ü”

I

ben

-(ı)m

-(i)m

-(u)m

-(ü)m

  

 

Let´s start and conjugate the verbs below:  

 

Bakmak (to look) , okumak (to read) , yazmak (to write) , yemek (to eat) , içmek (to drink) , atmak (to throw) , gitmek (to go) , kapatmak (to close) , bilmek (to know) , gelmek (to come), unutmak (to forget), giymek (to wear), görmek (to see) :

 

Bak + ar + ım : I look!

 

Yap + ar + ım : I do!

 

Oku + r + um : I read!

 

Yaz + ar + ım : I write!

 

Ye + r + im : I eat!

 

İç + er + im : I drink!

 

At + ar + ım : I throw!

 

Gid + er + im : I go!

 

Kapat + ır + ım : I close!

 

Bil + ir + im : I know!

 

Gel + ir + im : I come!

 

Unut + ur + um : I forget

 

Giy + er + im : I wear!

 

Gör + ür + üm : I see!

 

2) Present Tense for "Sen (You are)" Pronoun:

 

a) First, find the Present Tense form of 3rd Singular Pronoun, which we also called Main Form for Present Tense.

 

b) And then, conjugate it according to the Personal Endings of "sen". Let´s remember the Personal Endings of "sen" with a table below:

R.Pronoun/Last Vowel - Suffix

   Meaning

If last vowel is  “a,ı”

If last vowel is “e,i”

If last vowel is  “o, u”

If last vowel is

“ö, ü”

you

sen

-sın

-sin

-sun

-sün

 

Let´s start and conjugate the verbs below:  

 

Bakmak (to look) , okumak (to read) , yazmak (to write) , yemek (to eat) , içmek (to drink) , atmak (to throw) , gitmek (to go) , kapatmak (to close) , bilmek (to know) , gelmek (to come), unutmak (to forget), giymek (to wear), görmek (to see) :

 

Bak + ar sın : You look!

 

Yap + ar sın : You do!

 

Oku + r sun : You read!

 

Yaz + ar + sın : You write!

 

Ye + r sin : You eat!

 

İç + er sim : You drink!

 

At + ar sın : You throw!

 

Gid + er sin : You go!

 

Kapat + ır sın : You close!

 

Bil + ir sin : You know!

 

Gel + irsin : You come!

 

Unut + ur sun : You forget

 

Giy + er sin : You wear!

 

Gör + ür sün : You see!

 

 

3) Present Tense for Biz (We) Pronoun.

 

 

a) First, find the Present Tense form of 3rd Singular Pronoun, which we also called Main Form for Present Tense.

 

b) And then, conjugate it according to the Personal Endings of "biz". Let´s remember the Personal Endings of "biz" with a table below:

 

Let´s remember the conjugation table for "biz":

R.Pronoun/Last Vowel - Suffix

   Meaning

If last vowel is  “a,ı”

If last vowel is “e,i”

If last vowel is  “o, u”

If last vowel is

“ö, ü”

we

biz

-ız

-iz

-uz

-üz

 

Let´s start and conjugate the verbs below:  

Bakmak (to look) , okumak (to read) , yazmak (to write) , yemek (to eat) , içmek (to drink) , atmak (to throw) , gitmek (to go) , kapatmak (to close) , bilmek (to know) , gelmek (to come), unutmak (to forget), giymek (to wear), görmek (to see) :

 

Bak + ar + ız : We look!

 

Yap + ar + ız : We do!

 

Oku + r + uz : We read!

 

Yaz + ar + ız : We write!

 

Ye + r + iz : We eat!

 

İç + er + iz : We drink!

 

At + ar + ız : We throw!

 

Gid + er + iz : We go!

 

Kapat + ır + ız : We close!

 

Bil + ir + iz : We know!

 

Gel + ir + iz : We come!

 

Unut + ur + uz : We forget

 

Giy + er + iz : We wear!

 

Gör + ür + üz : We see!

 

 

4) Present Tense for "Siz" Pronoun:

 

a) First, find the Present Tense form of 3rd Singular Pronoun, which we also called Main Form for Present Tense.

 

b) And then, conjugate it according to the Personal Endings of "siz". Let´s remember the Personal Endings of "siz" with a table below:

R.Pronoun/Last Vowel - Suffix

   Meaning

If last vowel is  “a,ı”

If last vowel is “e,i”

If last vowel is  “o, u”

If last vowel is

“ö, ü”

you

siz

-sınız

-siniz

-sunuz

-sünüz

 

Let´s start and conjugate the verbs below:  

 

Bakmak (to look) , okumak (to read) , yazmak (to write) , yemek (to eat) , içmek (to drink) , atmak (to throw) , gitmek (to go) , kapatmak (to close) , bilmek (to know) , gelmek (to come), unutmak (to forget), giymek (to wear), görmek (to see) :

 

Bak + ar sınız : You look!

 

Yap + ar sınız : You do!

 

Oku + r sunuz : You read!

 

Yaz + ar + sınız : You write!

 

Ye + r siniz : You eat!

 

İç + er siniz : You drink!

 

At + ar sınız : You throw!

 

Gid + er siniz : You go!

 

Kapat + ır sınız : You close!

 

Bil + ir siniz : You know!

 

Gel + irsiniz : You come!

 

Unut + ur sunuz : You forget

 

Giy + er siniz : You wear!

 

Gör + ür sünüz : You see!

 

 

5) For the Present Tense for "Onlar", you can use Main Form or add Plurality Suffixes -ler/-lar.

 

 

IMPORTANT! EXCEPTIONAL RULES:

 

If a verb root has got more than one vowels;

 

a) If last vowel is a and ı, it receives -ır

 

b) If last vowel is e and i, it receives -ir

 

Anlatır: He/she/it tells.

 

Saldırır: He/she/it attacks

 

Patlatır: He/she/it blows 

 

Verb root/stem + Present Simple Tense Suffix + Personal Endings.

 

A funny note:

 

I have added a song with name "Yanarım" from Sertab Erener, meaning "I burn"

 

Yanmak:

 

Yan + ar + ım : I burn  :)

 

 

thx

turkishcobra //


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Simple Present Tense I - REVISED AND EDITED

Turkish lesson by turkishcobra
Level: intermediate