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Personal Pronouns

All About Personal Pronouns - I, you, he, we, you, they

The Personal Pronouns are not used so widely as in English as the person is evident from the personal verb ending.

They are used for emphasis only in their simple form. However they are used in their extended forms when suffixes are added for all those important little words - "to, from, with, etc." - which are discussed below.


Personal Pronouns - The Simple Forms

The Personal Pronouns are usually only used for emphasis as the verb form itself already points to the person. It is similar to Spanish where a person will say - comprendo - I understand - instead of Yo comprendo - I understand

1.                             Singular

  1. ben - I
  2. sen - you - familiar
  3. o - He, she, it
  4. biz - we
  5. siz -you - plural and polite singular
  6. onlar -they
  7. gidiyorum - I´m going - but emphasized - ben gidiyorum - I am going
  8. kald覺k - we stayed - but emphasized - biz kald覺k - We stayed

1.                             Plural

Examples of Emphasis


The Extended Forms of Personal Pronouns

These extended forms are discussed in detail in the next section of this webpage.

The personal pronouns show some changes in spelling:

The first person singular - ben - I - takes the following irregular forms:
to me becomes bana - (NOT bene).
of me, my - becomes - benim - (NOT benin).
of us, our - becomes - bizim - (NOT bizin).

The Singular Forms

ben - I
bana - to me - (irregular)
benim - of me, my - (irregular)
beni - me (obj.)
bende - on me
benden - from me
benimle - with me

sen - you
sana - to you
senin - of you, your
seni - you (obj.)
sende - on you
senden - from you
seninle - with you

o - he, she, it
(all extended forms of - o - use buffer letter -n- as below)
ona - to him, her, it -
onun - of him, his, her, its
onu - him, her, it (obj.)
onda - on him, her,it
ondan - from him, her, it
onunla - with him, her, it

The Plural Forms

biz - we
bize - to us
bizim - our - (irregular)
bizi - us (obj.)
bizde - on us
bizden - from us
bizimle - with us

siz - you
size - to you
sizin - your
sizi - you (obj.)
sizde - on you
sizden - from you
sizinle - with you

onlar - they
(all forms add letter -n- to become onlar, see note below)
onlara - to them
onlar覺n - their
onlar覺 - them (obj.)
onlarda - on them
onlardan - from them
onlarla - with them

Third Person Spelling Changes

The Third Person ingular Ponoun - o - he, she, it - adds letter -n- to become - on- when adding further suffixes.
The Third Person Plural is also irregular becoming - onlar - they.


Extended Forms of the Personal Pronouns

The main use for the Personal Pronouns is to extend them with all the important little words - to, from, with etc. , which of course are suffixes in Turkish.

1.                             With the -a -e suffix - to, towards

2.                             Singular

  1. bana - to me
  2. sana - to you
  3. ona - to him, to her , to it
  4. bize - to us
  5. size - to you
  6. onlara - to them

1.                              

2.                             Plural

Notice that the first and second person singular forms are bana and sana - they are irregular - bene and sene - would have been expected. This is a shift that has happened historically but some of the Turkic Languages have not made this Vowel Shift so - bene and sene - are used in the Kahzhak and Uzbek tongues.

1.                             Some Examples With the -a -e suffix

  1. Bana onu verin - Give that to me
  2. Onlara bak覺n覺z - Look at them -   lit: towards them
  3. Bize inan覺yorlar - They believe us  -  lit: believe to us

Note that the word - inanmak - to believe - takes the Dative Case as its Object - hence Turkish says - bize inanin - believe to us. Whereas English uses the direct object for the verb - to believe - thus we say - Believe us.

We also have certain verbs in english that do not take the Direct object case - as in - "I am frightened OF the dark."


With the addition of -de -da suffix - in,on,at

All the pronouns retain their regular form when adding the -de/-da suffix.

1.                             Singular

  1. bende - in, on,at me
  2. sende - on you
  3. onda - on him, on her , on it
  4. bizde - on us
  5. sizde - on you
  6. onlarda - on them
  7. Bende para yok - I´ve got no money  -  lit: on me
  8. Sende para var m覺? - Have you got any money?  -  lit: on you
  9. Bizde para var m覺? - Have we got any money?  -  lit: on us

1.                             Plural

Examples with the -de/-da suffix.


With the addition of -den -dan suffix - from, by

All the pronouns retain their regular form when adding the -den/-dan suffix

1.                             Singular

  1. benden - from me
  2. senden - from you
  3. ondan - from him, her ,it
  4. bizden - from us
  5. sizden - from you
  6. onlardan - from them
  7. Benden bir emsiye alabilirsiniz - You can have an umbrella off me.  -  lit: from me
  8. Senden bir sigara al覺r m覺y覺m? - Can I have a cigarette off you?  -  lit: take from you
  9. Ondan korkuyorum - I am frightened of him  -  lit: frightened from him

1.                             Plural

Examples with the -den suffix


With the addition of -in suffix - belonging to

Note that the First Person Singular - benim - and First Person Plural - bizim - are both irregular as - benin - and - bizin - would have been expected.

1.                             Singular

  1. benim - my, of me
  2. senin - your, of you
  3. onun - his, hers, its, of him..
  4. bizim - our, of us
  5. sizin -your, of you
  6. onlar覺n - their, of them
  7. Benim emsiyemi alabilirsiniz. - You can take my umbrella.
  8. emsiye-m-i - my umbrella - as a Direct Object (see below).
  9. Senin araban yeni mi? - Is your car new?
  10. Onlar覺n arabas覺 eskidir. - Their car is old.

1.                             Plural

Examples with the -in suffix


With the addition of -i suffix - signifies the Direct Object

All the pronouns retain their regular form when adding the -i -覺 -u -ü - Direct Object suffix

1.                             Singular

  1. beni - me
  2. seni - you
  3. onu - him, her, it
  4. bizi - us
  5. sizi -you
  6. onlar覺 - them
  7. Mehmet, beni vurdu - Mehmet hit me.
  8. ben-i - "me" - as a Direct Object
  9. Ali, araban覺 onard覺 m覺 mi? - Did Ali repair your car?
  10. araba-n-覺 - "your car" - as a Direct Object
  11. Mustafa, onu yapt覺 - Mustafa did it..
  12. on-u - "it" - as a Direct Object

1.                             Plural

Examples with the -i Direct Object Suffix


With the addition of -la/ -la (ile) suffix - with, and, together with

Adding the -le -la suffix can be considered as an exception.

It is added to the genitive -in form of the pronouns, not directly to the root pronoun - except for the third person plural - onlarla - with them

1.                             Singular

  1. benimle - with me
  2. seninle - with you
  3. onunla - with him.. her.. it..
  4. bizimle - with us
  5. sizinle -with you
  6. onlarla - with them -(exception see note below and above)
  7. Mehmet, benimle geldi. - Mehmet came with me. Mehmet and I came.
  8. ben-im-le - with me or and I
  9. Ali, onlarla geldi mi? - Did Ali come with them?
  10. onlar-la - with them - see exception note below
  11. Mustafa,bizimle kalacak - Mustafa will stay with us..
  12. biz-im-le - with us

1.                             Plural

Examples with the -le suffix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All about Possessive Adjectives - my, your, her, our, etc.

The Possessive Adjective my, your, his, her ,our, their is a suffix which obeys vowel harmony rules.
It is called an Possessive Adjective because it shows possession and describes a noun.

Which cat? - the answer - my cat. The word - my - is a Possessive Adjective describing the noun cat.

In Turkish the suffix -覺m,-im,-um,-üm added to words ending in a consonant or just -m when added to words ending in a vowel means - my.


Some Examples of the suffixed Possessive Adjective

1.                           The E-Dotted Vowels Singular
  1. el - hand
  2. elim - my hand
  3. di - tooth
  4. diim - my tooth
  5. göz - eye
  6. gözüm - my eye
  7. gül - rose
  8. gülüm - my rose
  9. eller - hands
  10. ellerim - my hands
  11. diler - teeth
  12. dilerim - my teeth
  13. gözler - eyes
  14. gözlerim - my eyes
  15. güller - roses
  16. güllerim - my roses
  17. ay - month, moon
  18. ay覺m - my month
  19. k覺z - girl, daughter
  20. k覺z覺m - my daughter
  21. tost - toast
  22. tostum - my toast
  23. sabun - soap
  24. sabunum - my soap
  25. aylar - months, moons
  26. aylar覺m - my months
  27. k覺zlar - girls, daughters
  28. k覺zlar覺m - my daughters
  29. tostlar - toasts (slices of)
  30. tostlar覺m - my (slices of) toast(s)
  31. sabunlar - (bars of) soap(s)
  32. sabunlar覺m - my soap(s) (bars of..)
1.                           The E-Dotted Vowels Plural
Thanks J. R. for correction - Oct 2005
1.                           The A-UnDotted Vowels Singular
1.               The A-Dotted Vowels Plural

The Plural is always the First Suffix Added - The Possessive Suffix follows the Plural Suffix:

  1. ellerim - el-ler-im - my hands
  2. odalar覺m覺z - oda-lar-覺m覺z - our rooms


Adding the Possessive Adjective to Words that end in a Vowel

When the word ends in a vowel then the Possessive Suffix drops its own initial vowel.

  1. kedi - cat
  2. kedim - kedi-m - my cat

But the Possessive Suffix does not lose a vowel when attatched to the Plural of a Noun as it follows the final consonant of -lar

  1. kediler - cats
  2. kedilerim - kediler-im - my cats


The Third Person Singular Possessive Suffix -i becomes -si (uses Buffer Letter -s-) when added to a noun ending in a vowel.

  1. oda - room
  2. odas覺 - oda-s-覺 - his room

This example shows the addition of the buffer letter -s- in order to keep two vowels apart.


Possessive Adjective Reference Summary

The suffixes for all the persons viz: my, your, his, our, your, their, are as follows.

Note that they all obey Vowel Harmony Rules.

Suffix Added to Words
ending in Consonants

 

  1. -覺m -im -um -üm - my
  2. -覺n -in -un -ün - your
  3. -覺 -i -u -ü - his/her/its
  4. -覺m覺z -imiz -umuz -ümüz - our
  5. -覺n覺z -iniz -unuz -ünüz - your
  6. -lar覺 -leri - their
Suffix added to Words
ending in Vowels

 

  1. -m
  2. -n
  3. -s覺 -si -su- -sü
  4. -m覺z- miz -muz -müz
  5. -n覺z -niz -nuz -nüz
  6. -lar覺 -leri
  7. palto - overcoat
  8. paltom - my overcoat
  9. paltolar覺m - my overcoats
  10. sokak - street
  11. soka覺m - my street
  12. sokaklar覺m - my streets
  13. göz - eye
  14. gözün - your eye
  15. gözleriniz - your eyes
  16. armut - pear
  17. armudu - his pear
  18. armutlar覺 - his pears or their pear(s)


 

 

Some Examples of the use of the Possessive Suffix

The last example above can be construed three ways, the context of the conversation at the time is usually enough for the correct interpretation to be understood and is explained below:

  1. armutlar -覺 - his pears
  2. armut -lar覺 - their pear - and their pears

Of course it seems that their pears should be - armutlar -lar覺 - but suffixes ending in -lar are never doubled, therefore the context should make the singularity or plurality of the noun in question clear.

However to be explicit then - onun - his - or - onlar覺n - their can be used:

  1. onun armudu - his pear - (he has singular pear)
  2. onun armutlar覺 - his pears - (he has plural pears)
  3. onlar覺n armudu - their pear - (they have a singular pear)
  4. onlar覺n armutlar覺 - their pears - (they have plural pears)
    1. araba - car
    2. arabam覺z - our car
    3. arabalar覺m覺z - our cars
    4. oda - room
    5. odas覺 - his room
    6. odalar覺 - his rooms
    7. aile - family
    8. ailesi - his family
    9. aileleri - their families
    10. otobüs - bus
    11. otobüsümüz - our bus
    12. otobüslerimiz - our buses
    13. emsiye - umbrella
    14. emsiyeniz - your umbrella
    15. emsiyeleriniz - your umbrellas
    16. kulak - ear
    17. kula覺n覺z - your ear
    18. kulaklar覺n覺z - your ears
    19. domuz - pig
    20. domuzu - his pig
    21. domuzlar覺 - his pigs/their pig
    22. kap覺 - door
    23. kap覺m - my door
    24. kap覺lar覺m - my doors


Some further examples of the Possessive Adjectives


The Addition of Further Suffixes to the Possessed Noun

A noun with the possessive suffix - being a noun in its own right - can be subject to further suffices.

Buffer letter -n- is used when adding second suffices to Possessed Items for Third Person Singular his, her, its and Third Person Plural their :

  1. araba-s覺-n-a - to his/her car
  2. elma-lar覺-n-dan - from their apples
  3. kedi - cat - Singular
  4. * kedi ends in a vowel so only suffix -m is added
  5. kedim - my cat - kedi -m
  6. kedimden - from my cat - kedi -m -den
  7. kedime - to my cat - kedi -m -e
  8. kediler - cats - Plural
  9. * kediler ends in a consonant so suffix -im is added
  10. kedilerim - my cats - kedi -ler -im
  11. kedilerimden - from my cats - kedi -ler -im -den
  12. kedilerime - to my cats - kedi -ler -im -e
  13. araba - car
  14. * araba ends in a vowel so only suffix -n is added
  15. araban - your car - araba -n
  16. arabana - to your car - araba -n -a
  17. arabanda - in your car - araba -n -da
  18. arabalar - cars
  19. * arabalar ends in a consonant so total suffix -覺m is added
  20. arabalar覺n - your cars - araba -lar -覺n
  21. arabalar覺na - to your cars - araba -lar -覺n -a
  22. arabalar覺nda - in your cars - araba -lar -覺n -da
  23. elma - apple
  24. * elma ends in a vowel so third person suffix - using buffer letter -s覺 is added
  25. onun elmas覺 - his apple - elma -s -覺
  26. onun elmas覺nda - in his apple - elma -s -覺 -n -da
  27. onun elmas覺ndan - from his apple - elma -s -覺 -n -dan


Examples for Study





Note: onun - his is used to show that this apple belongs to one person


Remind me about buffer letter -n-

A noun with the possessive suffix can be subject to further suffices.
Buffer letter -n- is used when adding second suffices to Possessed Items for Third Person Singular his, her, its and Third Person Plural their


  1. elmalar - apples
  2. onlar覺n elmalar覺 - their apples - elma -lar覺
  3. onlar覺n elmalar覺nda - in their apples - elma -lar覺 -n -da
  4. onlar覺n elmalar覺ndan - from their apples - elma -lar覺 -n -dan

Note: onlar覺n - their is used to show that this/these apple(s) belongs to more than one person

See explanation above in - Use of Possessive Suffix


  1. köy - village
  2. köyümüz - our village - köy -ümüz
  3. köyümüzde - in our village - köy -ümüz -de
  4. köyümüzden - from our village - köy -ümüz -den
  5. köyler - villages
  6. köylerimiz - our villages - köy -ler -imiz
  7. köylerimizde - in our villages - köy -ler -imiz -de
  8. köylerimizden - from our villages - köy -ler -imiz -den
  9. köpek - dog
  10. köpeiniz - your dog - köpe -iniz
  11. köpeinizde - on your dog - köpe -iniz -de
  12. köpeinize - to your dog - köpe -iniz -e



Note: The Rule of Consonant Mutation - k changes to - is operating here when a vowel suffix is being added to a hard consonant.


  1. köpekler - dogs
  2. köpekleri - their dogs - köpek -leri
  3. köpeklerine - to his dogs/to their dog(s) - köpek -leri -n -e
  4. köpeklerinden - from their dogs - köpek -leri -n -den
  5. ev - house
  6. onlar覺n evleri - their house(s) - ev -leri
  7. onlar覺n evlerinde - in their house(s) - ev -leri -n -de
  8. onlar覺n evlerinden - from their house(s) - ev -leri -n -den
  9. evler - houses
  10. onun evleri - his houses - ev -ler -i
  11. onun evlerinde - in his houses - ev -ler -i -n -de
  12. onun evlerinden - from his houses - ev -ler -i -n -den



 

 


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