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Lesson 3

"Nas覺l bir _____" :   "What kind of a ______"

  Nas覺l bir ev(dir)? :    What kind of a house  ?

  Büyük bir ev(dir)   :  It is a big house

Normally, an adjective precedes the noun it  describes. (iyi bir kitap: a good book), whether -----D4r is used or not.There are however, some exceptions. Let´s see the difference in these sentences.

 ev :                                      that house

o ev büyük(tür) :                     that house is big.

o büyük bir ev(dir) :                 that is a big house.

-D4r is also used to announce a fact.

buz : ice           /  souk : cold

buz souktur :  ice is cold

demir : iron     /  sert : hard

demir serttir :  iron is hard.

(Don’t mix with the probability “dir “which is used with belki, herhalde,”Belki gitmitir” Herhalde yoldad覺r” He’s probably gone/ he’s probably on the way…) We will see this in future lessons


Negative in Turkish:

To make  verbs negative , we place   "-m2"  (me or ma) right after the verb root and for nouns, adjectives and other words we must use "Deil" : "not" or "it is not".

O öretmen deil(dir) :          He is not (a) teacher.

 Kitap büyük deil(dir) :          The book is not big.

(o) rahat deil(dir) :               It is not comfortable.

Deil mi(dir)? :                      Is it not? (Isn’t it?)

O  büyük deil mi? :                Isn’t it big?

O rahat deil mi? :                   Is it not comfortable?(Isn’t it confortable?)


An infinitive (mastar) is made up of two parts:

1. Verb Root -V.R,

2. -m2k.

Verb Root (V.R.) : gel : come

Infinitive suffix -m2k : "-mek" or "-mak"

gel -m2k: gelmek: to come     Negative: gelm2+m2k: gelmemek : not to come

git -m2k: gitmek: to go           Negative: gitmemek: not to go

yap -m2k: yapmak : to do, to make / Negative: yapmamak: not to do

To make the tenses or command form we need only the verb root as we´ll see.



var :                there is (it exists)

yok :                there is not (it doesn´t exist)

var m覺? :         Is there?

yok mu? :        Is there not?

If "var" and "yok" are used after possessive suffixes then they mean "to have", or "not to have". These we´ll see with some simple examples. Let´s not forget the meaning of "Deil : it is not" and "yok : there is not". They mean almost the same only when they are used after the Locative Case Ending -D2´. (Lesson 4)

evde :                                                             at home

O evde mi?:                            Is he (she, it) at home?

O evde deil mi?:                   Isn´t he at home?

O  evde yok mu?:                   Isn´t he at home?

(Ali or o ) evde deil / evde yok : (Ali or he) is not at home

Dolapta bardak var m覺?: Is there a  glass in the cupboard?

Evde süt var m覺?  Is there any milk at home

Parkta çiçekler var m覺? Are there flowers in the parc

Aye’den haber yok: there is no news from Aye.


Adverbs of Place: Yer belirteçleri

Bura / ura / Ora / Nere ?

Bura-: here / ora-, ura-: there / nere-: where

These words are always with a suffix, they´re never used alone.

Plural : Buralar, uralar, oralar, nereler.

Burada : here                                                 Buralarda : around here

urada : there                                                uralarda : around there

Orada : there (further)                                    Oralarda : around there

Nerede : where                                              Nerelerde : where (plural)

Çocuklar orada m覺?:                                        Are the children there?

Buralarda eski evler var:                                  There are old houses around here.

Onlar nerede?                                                Where are they?

(Onlar) Neredeler?                                          Where are they?

Nerelerdeler?                                                 Where abouts are they?


When we ask the question where is the milk  we answer the milk is in the refrigerator.

Then we start with the milk ....süt buzdolab覺nda.

But if we ask if  is there any milk in the refrigerator???then we must start  with the the refrigerator in Turkish.

Buzdolab覺nda süt var m覺?

Buzdolab覺 is a compound name Buz: 覺ce,  dolap: cupboard 

"N" is a buffer that is used after the compound names. (It is also used after modified nouns  lesson 8 - Yatak odas覺na : to the bed room or after possessive çantas覺na bak: look at his bag)


Now you try???

1)Is there (some )bread in the box? (box. kutu-  ekmek: bread)

2) Ask then: Where is the bread?

3) The bread is in the box.

Let´s see if you answered well?

1)Kutuda ekmek var m覺?

2)Ekmek nerede?

3) Ekmek kutuda.

Note: -de- da is location tag. (lesson4)which means in, at , on



Is there an umbrella in the car ?

Is there a cow in the garden?

there is an umbrella in the car.

There isn´t a cow in the garden

Answer key:

Arabada bir emsiye var m覺?

Bahçede bir inek var m覺?

Arabada bir emsiye var.

Bahçede bir inek yok.


Translate please

Masada süt var

Masada süt yok mu?

Evde ekmek yok mu?

Evde kola var m覺?

Answer key:

There is milk on the table

Isn´t there any milk on the table?

Isn´t there any bread  at home?

Is there any cola at home?


Masa: table    

Ev: house

ferya, Anne Woods, alexandrabotez@, ode616, kemoneira and Danko liked this lesson

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