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Lesson 4

Case Endings : C.E. Ismin Halleri:

In Turkish nouns, (pronouns, verbal nouns) take 5 kinds of Case Ending Suffixes. Case Endings can be attached directly to a noun-base or to a noun that already has a possessive suffix. Case Endings are used depending on the meaning of the sentence as well as on the nature of the verb in  the sentence.

 

"Noun" (Nominative or Absolute), "Yal覺n", Isim

okul : school ,      bahçe : garden ,      ev : house,     masa:  table

 

1. Locative Case : -D2 : at, on, in

evde, bahçede, okulda : at home, in the garden, at school

Istanbul´ da:   In Istanbul.

Ali evde. : Ali is at home.

Çocuklar bahçede:  Children ….

Kitap masada:  The book is …..

Baba ite: The father  is at work

Note: The 3th. person singular  doesn’t take any suffixe for verb to be. Therefore  we don’t see the verb personal ending for these exemples. 


2. Dative Case : -(y)2 : to, towards, ...

eve, bahçeye, okula : to the house ...

Ali eve gidiyor. : Ali is going  home.

Mehmet bana bak覺yor : Mehmet is looking at me.

Kalemi oraya koy : Put the pencil  there.

Sana söylüyorum . I’m telling you

Some verbs requires dative form: (bakmak,vermek, söylemek, koymak ……)

(to look, to give, to say, to put….)

 

3. Accusative / Definite Objective Case : -(y)4´

The verbe must be transitive verb. Accusative form is needed when the object of the sentence is definite and specific. We´ll see the difference below:

okumak:  to read   /   gazete: newspaper

okuyorum :             I´m reading.

Bir gazete okuyorum. : I´m reading  a paper.

Gazeteyi okuyorum. : I´m reading the paper.

Okuyor:                      He is reading.

Ali gazeteyi okuyor. :  Ali is reading the paper.

görmek:   to see

Bir ev görüyorum. :                            I see a house.

Evi görüyorum :                                 I see the house.

Evi gördüm:                                       I saw or( have seen )the house.

Bursa´ y覺 gördüm:                            I saw or( have seen) Bursa.

Also when we say "that house, the red house, his house etc."  the house is not just any house but a definite one, so the accusative case ending is used.

 

4. Ablative Case : -D2´n : from, out of, through

evden, bahçeden, sokaktan, çocuktan from (out of, through) the house,…..

geliyor:  (he) is coming 

Ali bahçeden geliyor :            Ali is coming from the garden.

Ali nereden geliyor? :             Where is Ali coming from?

Parktan geliyor :                    He´s coming from the park.

As we know after unvoiced letters (hard consonants as p,ç,t,k,s,,f, h) "D" turns into "t".

 

5. Genitive Case : -(n)4n : of ..., ...´s

If the word ends in a vowel (possessive added or not) "n" comes as a buffer letter before the genitive suffix -4n and becomes -(n)4n. When the genitive suffix is at the end of the sentence the meaning is "it is his, hers, its, theirs ...", showing the possessor.

After proper nouns we put an apostrophe (´) to make it clear that the following ending  is the suffix. In this lesson we’ll learn the pronouns. We will see them again in lesson 10 with the command form.

kalem:  pen/pencil   /  defter: notebook 

kim?:   who?   /   kimin?                     : whose?

"Ali´nin"                                                                                :(It is) Ali´s, It belongs to Ali. 

"Bu kalem kimin?"                                         :Whose pencil is this? (To whom does this pencil belong?)

"Bu kalem Ali´nin"                                         :This pencil is Ali´s.

"Defterler çocuklar覺n"                                    :These notebooks belong to the children.

“Masan覺n”                                :table’s  or of the table

Masan覺n rengi: colour of the table.  (renk: colour)

 

PRONOUNS (Zamir)

ben :    I                                                                                 biz :                 we

sen :    you (singular)                         siz :                 you (plural or you polite)

o :        he, she, it, that                                               onlar :             they, those

sen :    you (informal and always singular)

siz :      you (formal and singular or plural)

 

Pronouns with Case Endings (C.E.)

 

Locative

Dative

Accusative

Ablative

ben / I 

bende

bana

beni

benden

sen / you 

sende

sana 

seni

senden

o / he,she,it 

onda

ona

onu

ondan

biz / we 

bizde

bize

bizi

bizden

siz / you

sizde

size

sizi

sizden

onlar / they/those

onlarda

onlara

onlar覺

onlardan

kim / who?

kimde?

kime?

kimi?

kimden?

 

Note that        "ben" in Dative form is "bana" and

"sen" in Dative form is "sana", instead of "bene" and "sene" and after "o" the letter “n”is used as a buffer, "ona".

 

C.E. with bura-, ura-, ora-, nere-.

                                   Locative                                                         Dative                                                Accusative                                    Ablative 

bura

burada / here

buraya / to here

buray/ here 

buradan/from here

ura

urada / there

uraya / to there 

uray/ there 

uradan/from there

ora

orada / there

oraya / to there

oray/ there

oradan/from there

nere

nerede? / where?

nereye?/ to where?

nereyi? /where?

nereden?/from where

 

My suggestion to all the beginners:

Some verbs require ablative forms some dative some accusative. But in my opinion 80% of the verbs are used in the definite form in accusative. So if you learn the 20% which remain, you can guess the accusative ones...

 

Take a blank sheet.  Divide into 4 parts  with a ruler as a cross.

put 1-2-3-4

IN  PART  1 (left up)  name DATIVE  (Y)2  e a  ye ya:  to toward

Bir eye bakmak, birine birey söylemek, birine birey vermek etc....

Bakmak is dative tou look toward somethingsöylemek if we tell to someone it2s dative also to give   is dative if  we give to someone.   as you see the action is prolonged toward someone....

IN  PART  2 -(right up) name ACCUSATIVE (y)4 (i,ü,u,覺) (ONLY DEFINITE OBJECT )

To find the object ask the quest覺on who or what to the verb? Whos do you love?  what do you carry ?  what do you see? The answer is the object

. It´s mostly in accusative form in Turkish. I  see the tree . or I take the newspaper. The definite  object is in accusat覺ve form.

B襤R EYI ALMAK.(ta take something)

B襤REY襤 KOYMAK (to put something) B襤R EY襤 SEVMEK (to love something) B襤R SEY襤 GET襤RMEK (to bring something) B襤R EYI TAIMAK.(to carry something)

This is approximativeley 80 % of the verbs.....

IN  PART  3 (left below WRITE LOCATIVE d2- de da  :at, in ,on 

durmak (stop) -uyumak (sleep) -kalmak (stay)  -komak (run)

evde kalmak /stay at home) -yatakta uyumak (to sleep in the bed) etc....

IN  PART  4 (right below) put ABLATIVE: DEN DAN -FROM

ç覺kmak (leave get out)- korkmak(be afraid) -vaz geçmek (renounce) - nefret etmek (hate)-gelmek come from somewhere)- holanmak(l覺ke) s覺k覺lmak (to get annoyed 

Evden ç覺k覺yorum. I´m leaving the house (we say from house)

I´m afraid of the dog we say  from the dog : köpekten korkuyorum

Bu iten vazgeçiyorum: I renounce this work 

evden geliyorum: I come from home 

iten ç覺k覺yorum: I´m leaving work

iten s覺k覺ld覺m :I´m fed up with work!!!!

This is the way to remember and not get mixed upwith these vebs. But using them a lot in the sentences will make you remember.

 

By substituting each time just one word try to make sentences yourself as:

Havluyu görüyorum,evi görüyorum, at覺 görüyorum, at覺 gördün, at覺 gördün mü?

I see the towel, I see the house, I see the horse, you saw the horse, did you see the horse?

(at becomes  at+ 覺 ) this suffixe "覺 "is accusat覺ve .It´s just the definite object in Turkish because if I say "Bir at gördüm" it means:  I saw a horse (覺ndefinite object)

 

 

EXERCICES

Please put the right ending Dative or accusative    (Y)2 =(y)e -(y)a  or  (y)4   = 覺,i,u, ü

1) Taksim´............... git   : Go to Taksim=

2) Paris´..................  gel : Come to Paris

3  Beril´..................  söyle: Tell to Beril

4) Beril´......... seviyorum: I love Beril

5)  Kitap.......................getiriyorum : I bring the vase:

6)  Vazo...................beeniyorum  I like the vase

7) kap覺.......bak.: look at the door or (can be understood also open the door)

8) kitap.....bak: look at the book

9)kitap...  masa....  koy: put the book on the table

Answers

1) Taksim´e  2) Paris´e   3) Beril´e  4 Beril´i   4) kitab覺   6) vazoyu 7)kap覺ya 8)kitaba 9) kitab覺 masaya koy

 


margaret rose, Bridget, luem7, Moha-ios, RIttaMaria and 4 others liked this lesson


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