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Strengthened Adjectives

We call these in Turkish "pekitirme s覺fatlar覺". THIS IS THE MOST IRREGULAR TOPIC OF OUR LANGUAGE. :) Like we had learnt the irregular verbs in English one by one [go-went-gone, fly-flew-flown etc.] or irregular adjectives [child-children, mouse-mice etc.], you will have to learn by heart these adjectives in Turkish, too.

 

Strenghtened adjectives means "more than ´too´".

namely: hot --> too hot --> extremely hot

Strengthened adjectives are the third step above.

 

The feature of the noun is emphasized when we strenghten the adjective.

 

The way is usually this:

1) We copy the first syllable of the word.

2) We put it in front of the word.

3) We put one of the letters "m,p,r or s" between this copied syllable and the word. The irregularness is here. It´s not clear which letters will come.

 

It is similiar to the suffixes "in-, dis-, un-"1 suffixes in English. Like they can´t be used for all the adjectives in English, "m,p,r,s"2 can´t be used for all the adjectives in Turkish as well.

 

1"disthin" for "thick", "unlong" for "short", "unopen" for "close" etc.

2"teptehlikeli" for "tehlikeli", "güsgüvenilir" for "güvenilir" etc.

tehlikeli (dangerous)

güvenilir (1believable, 2safe)

 

Let´s start with a few examples:

 

siyah (black)

Let´s take the first syllable: si

si _siyah

simsiyah (extremely black/fully black/quite black)

 

k覺rm覺z覺 (red)

Let´s take the first syllable: k覺

k覺_k覺rm覺z覺

k覺pk覺rm覺z覺 (extremely red/fully red)

 

koca, kocaman (huge)

ko_koca ------>koskoca (extremely huge/quite huge/too huge)

/ko_kocaman-->koskocaman

 

yaln覺z (alone, lonely)

ya_yaln覺z------>yapayaln覺z (extremely alone/too alone/quite alone)

 

bo (empty)

bo_bo-------->bombo (fully empty/too empty)

 

uzun (long)

u_uzun-------->upuzun (too long/extremely long/quite long)

 

... MEANING EXTREMELY .../FULLY ...
ak white or close to white apak
beyaz white bembeyaz
mavi blue masmavi
yeil green yemyeil
mor purple mosmor
turuncu orange (colour) tupturuncu
kahverengi brown kapkahverengi
karanl覺k darkness/in darkness kapkaranl覺k
koyu dark (for colours) kopkoyu
aç覺k 1open, 2light (for colour) apaç覺k
temiz clean tertemiz
pis, kirli dirty pimpis, kipkirli
düzgün straight düpdüzgün
da覺n覺k untidy darmada覺n
genç young gencecik
zay覺f thin (antonym of "fat") zarzay覺f/zapzay覺f*
çevre 1environment, 2around side çepeçevre (all around)
kal覺n  thick kapkal覺n
ince thin ipince
büyük big büsbüyük, kocaman
küçük small küçücük
k覺sa short k覺sac覺k
yuvarlak round yusyuvarlak
geni large gepgeni
düz straight, plane, smooth dümdüz/düpdüz/düpedüz**
ucuz cheap upucuz
kolay easy koskolay(?)
zor difficult zopzor(?)
a覺r heavy apa覺r
sert hard semsert/sepsert/ta gibi***
yumuak soft yusyumuak/yumuac覺k****
s覺cak hot s覺ms覺cak, alev gibi (direct: like a fire)
souk cold buz gibi (direct: like ice)

*"zarzay覺f" is preferred much more than other.

**"düpedüz" means "no need to objection/it is completely clear/it can never be denied/...etc." and it is used for the bad situations/events. 

***"ta gibi" means "like stone". It is being likened to a stone.

****"yumuac覺k" is preferred much more.

 

(?)I´m not exactly sure.

 

I´ll increase the quantity of the examples as long as I remember words.

 

 

Odan覺z覺 tertemiz görmek istiyorum. (I want to see your room quite clean.)

 

oda (room), temiz (clean), görmek (to see), istemek (to want)

 

oda+n覺z+覺-------------->odan覺z覺 (your room)

te_temiz--------------->tertemiz (quite clean)

iste+yor+im------------>istiyorum (i want)

 

Elektrikler kesilince oda kapkaranl覺k oldu. (The room became too dark when the electric went out.)

 


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