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Turkish Alphabet


Turkish Alphabet


Turkish alphabet is composed of twenty-one consonants and eight vowels. It lacks the English letters q, w, and x and has the following additional letters: ç,  ğ,  i,  ö,  ş,  ü


The order of alphabet is:

A  b  c  ç  d  e  f  g  ğ  h  ı  i  j  k  l  m  n  o  ö  p  r  s  ş  t  u  ü  v  y  z



Letter                     Name                         Approximate Pronunciation


 A a  a  after, up
 B b  bebig, bad, boy 
 C c  cejam, jar
 Ç ç  çechurch
 D d dedig, did
 E e                            ebed, fed
 F f    fe                                  fed, fit
 G g  gegoal, gap
 Ğ ğ   yumuşak ge         lengthens preceding, no pronunciation itself.   
 H h hehope, hat
 I  ı   ıEngland, pencil
 İ i    isit, fit
 J j    jelike "s" in leisure, measure
 K k  kecape, cost
 L l    leleave, wool
 M m   meman, monkey
 N n   nenot, number
 O o  oopen, no, go
 Ö ö   öearly, girl
 P p   pepaper, purpose
 R r  rerot, rare
 S s  sesit, soap
 Ş s şelike "sh" in ship, shoe
 T t tetip, toe
 U u uput, pull
 Ü ü üdew
 V v vevote, vice
 Y y yeyes, you
 Z z zezoo, zone



The general rule is in Turkish is that every vowel will take the consonant before it to form a syllable, so apart from the first syllable of a word, every syllable in a pure Turkish word begins with a consonant. This applies also when suffixes are added to a word and when two or more words form  a single unit.



bil-gi-sa-yar             - computer
ma-sa                        - table
bar-dak                     - glass
ka-lem                       - pencil
ki-tap                         - book
te-le-fon                    - phone
a-dam                        - man
def-ter                       - notebook


Stress in words


Turkish words are usually stressed on their last syllable. The common exceptions to this rule are place names, adverbs, compound words, certain foreign borrowings, and some words denoting relatives and living creatures. Some suffixes are not stressed but usually when a suffix is added the stress moves to the last syllable of the resultant word:


ar-ka-daş (friend)       
ar-ka-da-şım (my friend)             
ar-ka-da-şı-ma (to my friend)


ma-sa (table)              
ma-sa-da ( on the table)


Na-sıl-sı-nız?  (How are you?)
İ-yi-yim (I'm fine.)



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