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Turkish loanwords in Hungarian language
1.       Platschu
29 posts
 11 Jun 2009 Thu 11:01 pm

I came here, because I began to like the Turkish language. It reminds me to Hungarian. Both of them is very hard to learn for non-native speaker, but it is not impossible.

 

I don´t know what have you learned about Hungary, but we were conquered for 150 years in the middle age by Turks. This perios had positive and negative effects too, but our culture and language evolved because of the Turkish people.

 

As far as I know 9% of our words have a Turkish origin. Here are some example:

 

  • Lovaglás: gyeplő
  • Törzsi rend, nomád társadalom: gyula, kündü, karcha, kapu, sereg, tábor, bilincs, törvény, tanú
  • Népnevek: besenyő, nándor, böszörmény, káliz, bular (belár)
  • Vallás, hiedelemvilág: báj, ige, igéz, boszorkány, ünnep, egyház, búcsú, gyón
  • Állattartás: barom, ökör, bika, tinó, ünő, borjú, ürü, kos, kecske, disznó, ártány, tyúk, túró, író, köpű, ól, karám, vályú, komondor, kuvasz
  • Földművelés: arat, búza, árpa, őröl, ocsú, kölyű, eke, sarló, tarló, borsó, gyümölcs, alma, körte, som, dió, kökény, kender, csalán, tiló, csepű, orsó, szőlő, bor, seprő, csiger
  • Halászat: gyalom, vejsze, tok, süllő, gyertya
  • Solymászás, madarászás: sólyom, keselyű, ölyv, turul, karvaly, tőr
  • Mesterségek: ács, szűcs
  • Közlekedés: tengely, szál
  • Kereskedés: bársony, gyöngy, bors, tár, szatócs
  • Természeti környezet: tenger, sár, szél
  • Állatvilág: oroszlán, bölény, gödény, túzok, ürge, borz, bögöly
  • Növényvilág: gyertyán, kőris, katáng, kóró, gyékény, gyom, bojtorján, kökörcsin, üröm
  • Család: gyermek, kölyök, iker
  • Test, testi tulajdonságok: térd, boka, gyomor, köldök, tar, csipa, szeplő
  • Lakás, eszközök: sátor, cserge, karó, szék, teknő, bölcső, koporsó, balta
  • Ruházat: süveg, saru, ködmön, csat, tükör
  • Igék: gyűl, dől, szór, szűr, csavar, söpör, arat

But if you follow this link, there will be better examples with Turkish words:

http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macarca

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarian_language

 

 

What I could discover, when I was in Turkey:

 

kapu = kapısı

sál = eşarp

sárga = sarı

alma = elma

sok = çok



Edited (6/11/2009) by Platschu
Edited (6/11/2009) by Platschu
Edited (6/12/2009) by Platschu

2.       si++
3782 posts
 12 Jun 2009 Fri 07:46 am

Bir:1:egy
İki:2:ketto(iker:twin)
Üç:3:harom
Dört:4:negy
Beş:5:ot
Altı:6:hat
Yedi:7:het
Sekiz:8:nyolc( read like this: nioltz in ger.)
Dokuz:9:kilenc(read like this: kilentz in ger.)
On:10:tiz
Yirmi:20:husz
Otuz:30:harminc
Kırk:40:negyven
Elli:50:ötven
Altmış:60:hatvan
Yetmiş:70:hetven
Seksen:80:nyolcvan
Doksan:90:kilencven
Yüz:100:szaz


What seems intereresting to me is the -van/-ven ending after 40, 50,...,90.
They make me think that that ending is the Turkish 10 (on). Turkish has it
after 80 (seksen  < sekiz on) and 90 (doksan < dokuz on) and in some Turkic
languages (Turkmen I guess) there are 60 (altan < altI on) and 70 (yeten <
yedi on). Surprisingly Hungarian seems to retain more of this ending than
Turkish.

3.       Platschu
29 posts
 12 Jun 2009 Fri 10:05 am

Maybe the ending of numbers is a heritage of Turkish influence, but I haven´t heard about it.

 

The personal pronoun sounds similar too:

Ben - én

Sen - te

O - ő

Biz - mi

Siz - ti

Onlar - ők

 

* * *

 

Even my name, Ákos has a Turkish origin. Somewhere I´ve read it means in old Turkish "white bird" as ak-kush.

 

* * *

 

Here are some interesting article:

http://www.columbia.edu/~sss31/Turkiye/macarca.turkce.html

http://mek.niif.hu/01900/01911/html/index2.html

http://www.ghs-mh.de/migration/projects/language/la_hu_1.htm



Edited (6/12/2009) by Platschu
Edited (6/12/2009) by Platschu

4.       ReyhanL
1961 posts
 12 Jun 2009 Fri 10:40 am

Is there any connection between ´ tesek´ from Hungarian and ´tesekkur´ from Turkish ?

5.       Platschu
29 posts
 12 Jun 2009 Fri 10:50 am

I don´t know.  "Tesek" is not a word, because it is "tessék". This has no easy translation in English, but maybe the "please" word is equal. We use it, when you want to speak someone with very politely.

 

Köszönöm = Thank you

6.       si++
3782 posts
 12 Jun 2009 Fri 11:09 am

Also we had talked about Turkish and Hungarian in this thread

7.       vineyards
1953 posts
 13 Jun 2009 Sat 09:59 pm

 

Quoting ReyhanL

Is there any connection between ´ tesek´ from Hungarian and ´tesekkur´ from Turkish ?

 

 It is unlikely. Teşekkür itself is a loan word from Arabic. Its root is shukr which is also used in Turkish as şükür.

 

Basically, there are two channels through which the two languages influenced each other.

 

1. A possible common protolanguage in the distant past. It is not easy to prove this. There are many common misconceptions about history beyond 1000 years in the past. For example,  Turks had long settled in Anatolia erecting monuments, building towns of various sizes before 1071 which is widely regarded as the date Turks entered Anatolia. New archeological finds demonstrated how limited our knowledge about past events is.

 

2. Hungary becoming a part of the Ottoman Empire.  As far as I know, the main importance of Hungary and Poland for the Ottoman rulers was gaining allies against Austrians and the big powers of the day supporting it. I guess the influence of the Ottoman culture must therefore be quite limited compared to that in the Balkans.

 

Consequently, we are looking into a few remnants of the long past today. 



Edited (6/13/2009) by vineyards

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