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GERUNDS
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1.       tunci
7149 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 01:59 am

Gerunds

 

1. Linking Gerunds ; - Ip ,ip , up ,üp


These type of gerunds connects elements in the sentence.

 

Yemeğini yiyip gitti. ---> He ate his meal and gone.

Here, -ip suffix functions as "and" and conjoins two actions that happens one after another.

 

2. Gerunds of State ; - AraK,  -A   A

These type of gerunds describe the way of  action that is [has] happened.

 

- AraK

Cocuk ağlayarak odayı terketti. ---> The child left the room [by] crying.

Here, -arak works as "by", The child´s crying indicates the way of  his leaving room.

 

Çok çalışarak Türkçe´yi öğrendi. ---> He learnt Turkish by studying hard.

 

-A   A

Spor yapa yapa zayıfladılar  ---> They lost weight by physic exercising.

Here, - a ....-a   works as  by [doing]

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

3. Time Gerunds ;


a. Starting time gerunds ; -Alı , DIğından beri

These type of gerunds indicates the "starting time" of an action that functions as "since"

Sen gideli buraların kalmadı ---> Here turned into an tasteless place since you´ve gone.

O zengin olalı ortalarda gözükmüyor ---> He doesnt show up since he became rich.

 

b. Monitoring time gerunds ; IncA, Ir  MAz, DI mI, DIğI zaman, DIğı sIrada, DIğInda

These type of gerunds work as "when", "as soon as " "at the time "

IncA

O gelince bana haber ver ---> Let me know when he/she comes.

Ir  MAz

O gelir gelmez bana haber ver ---> Let me know as soon as he comes[gets] home.

DIğI zaman

O , eve geldiği zaman bana haber ver ---> Let me know when he/she comes home.

DIğı sIrada

Misafirler geldiği sırada ders çalışıyordum ---> I was studying at the time when the guests came.

DIğInda

Misafirler geldiğinde ders çalışıyordum ---> I was studying when the guests came.

 

c. "before" time Gerunds ; -mAdAn önce

Gelmeden önce bana haber ver ---> Let me know before you come.

 

d. "after" time Gerunds ; - DIktan sonra

Okulu bitirdikten sonra ne yapacaksın ? ---> What will you do after you finish school?

 

e. "until" time Gerunds ; - Ana  kadar , IncAyA  kadar, Asıya kadar

- Ana  kadar

Parası bitene kadar alışveriş yaptı ---> she shopped until she run out of money.

IncAyA  kadar

Parası bitinceye kadar alışveriş yaptı ---> she shopped until she run out of money.

Asıya kadar

Parası bitesiye kadar alışveriş yaptı ---> she shopped until she run out of money.

 

f. "as","whenever", "as long as " Time Gerunds ; "DIkça ", " DIğı sürece"

"DIkça "

Pratik yaptıkça Türkçem ilerliyor ---> My Turkish is improving as I practice it.

" DIğı sürece"

Tembellik yaptığın sürece Türkçe öğrenemezsin -->  As long as you are being lazy , you can´t learn Turkish.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Gerunds that express reason ; DIğı için, - DIğIndan,- Acağı için, mAk üzere,DIğına göre, Acağına göre


DIğı için

Türkçe konuşamadığı için çok üzgün ---> He is very upset because he can´t speak Turkish.

- DIğIndan

Türkçe konuşamadığından derdini anlatamıyor ---> Because [since] he cant speak Turkish He can´t explain his problem.

- Acağı için

Türkiye´ye gideceği için çok mutlu ---> He/she is very happy because he/she will go to Turkiye.

mAk üzere

İşe gitmek üzere arabaya bindi --> He got in the car to [in order to] go to work.

DIğına göre

Öğretmen geldiğine göre bugün ders olacak ---> Since the teacher came  , there will be class today.

Acağına göre

İyi bir işe gireceğine göre artık bir araba alır ---> Since he will get a good job , he would buy a  car.


5. Comparison Gerunds ; -Dığı kadar, AcAk kadar, -Dığı gibi , - cAsına

-Dığı kadar

Sepete elmaları aldığı kadar doldur ---> Put the apples into the basket as much as it [basket] can take.

AcAk kadar

- Okyanusta yüzecek kadar aptal değilim ---> I am not as that[much] stupid to swim in the ocean.

-Dığı gibi

Hayat masallarda olduğu gibi toz pembe değil ---> Life is not pink colour as in the tales.

- cAsına

Seni ölürcesine seviyorum ---> I love you to death.


6. Gerunds that express contrast --> -Acağına, - dIğI  halde, - mAsInA  rağmen, -mAktAnsA


-Acağına

Tişört alacağına pantalon al. ---> Buy a trouser instead of t-shirt.

- dIğI  halde

Yağmur yağdığı halde dışarı çıktık --> We went out in spite of  rain.

- mAsInA  rağmen

Yağmur yağmasına rağmen dışarı çıktık --> We went out in spite of  rain.

-mAktAnsA

Alışverişe gitmektense evde kalmayı yeğlerim ---> I prefer stay home rather than going for shopping.















 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Edited (7/13/2012) by tunci
Edited (7/13/2012) by tunci
Edited (7/13/2012) by tunci
Edited (7/13/2012) by tunci

nasirabbas, Khayrul Haq, MehmetK, mira 25, Lololooo and 5 others liked this message
2.       Abla
3647 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 09:38 am

A great job to collect them in one place. I remember this was one of the first shocks for a learner trying to discover the secrets of Turkish syntax. (Some progress has happened  -  this time I didn’t faint any more.)

 

A couple of questions/notes:

 

1. –Ip

 

Most of the time this structure seems to connect two actions with the same subject. I have accidentally come across a different example though. Is this normal use?

 

Orta Çağ kapanıp Yeni Çağ süreci başlamıştır.

 

2. –dIğI gibi

 

a) Onun yaptığı gibi yap. ‘Do the way he did.’

                           

b) Annesi odaya girdiği gibi bebek ağlamayı bıraktı. ‘The baby stopped crying as soon as her mother entered the room.’

 

Two different meanings, two different structures (it shows in the form of the embedded subject GEN - NOM). The latter one is certainly a gerund but is the former also? In my opinion gerunds always have to do with time but maybe the Turkish definition is different.

 

si++ wrote about it here, post 50:

 

http://www.turkishclass.com/forumTitle_50959_5

 

Btw, do not ever look at the “Gerund” article of Wikipedia. It is so bad.



Edited (7/13/2012) by Abla
Edited (7/13/2012) by Abla
Edited (7/13/2012) by Abla

MehmetK and nemanjasrb liked this message
3.       si++
3785 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 01:55 pm

 

Quoting Abla

 

Btw, do not ever look at the “Gerund” article of Wikipedia. It is so bad.

 

Is it?

 

By the way, what is gerund? I thought it would be defined as:

A traditional grammatical term for a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun.

 

That is called "isimfiil" in Turkish and corresponds to -ma/-me forms. What tunci is listing in this thread are called "zarffiil" in Turkish.

4.       scalpel
1472 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 02:05 pm

 

Quoting Abla

 

Is this normal use?

 

Orta Çağ kapanıp Yeni Çağ süreci başlamıştır.

 

Yes, it is..

(but the sentence is not a good one.. the word "süreç" should be removed..) 

5.       tunci
7149 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 02:19 pm

 

Quoting si++

 

 

Is it?

 

By the way, what is gerund? I thought it would be defined as:

A traditional grammatical term for a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun.

 

That is called "isimfiil" in Turkish and corresponds to -ma/-me forms. What tunci is listing in this thread are called "zarffiil" in Turkish.

 

In English the nearest name to it is "Gerund", In French "gerondif,converbe" whereas in Turkish there are several names for it ; " Ulaç, Bağ-fiil, Bağ-eylem, Zarf Fiil".

They are verbals that functions as Adverbs in the sentence.


Moha-ios liked this message
6.       si++
3785 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 02:45 pm

 

Quoting tunci

 

 

In English the nearest name to it is "Gerund", In French "gerondif,converbe" whereas in Turkish there are several names for it ; " Ulaç, Bağ-fiil, Bağ-eylem, Zarf Fiil".

They are verbals that functions as Adverbs in the sentence.


 

Your examples shows the forms that functions as adverbs. gerund definition says they function as a noun:

 

A traditional grammatical term for a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun.

Your examples are "zarffill"s i.e forms that functions as adverbs.

 

I think your confusion comes from the similarity of gerunds and present participles (See the second item below):

 

 

  • Gerunds and Verbal Nouns
    "A gerund is derived from a verb by adding the suffix -ing. The result is still a verb, and it exhibits ordinary verbal properties, such as taking objects and adverbs. Example: In football, deliberately tripping an opponent is a foul. Here the verb trip occurs in its gerund form tripping, but this tripping is still a verb: it takes the adverb deliberately and the object an opponent. However, the entire phrase deliberately tripping an opponent, because of the gerund within it, now functions as a noun phrase, in this case as the subject of the sentence. So, a gerund is still a verb, but the phrase built around it is nominal, not verbal.

    "Very different is a verbal noun constructed with -ing. Though derived from a verb, a verbal noun is strictly a noun, and it exhibits nominal properties . . .."
    (R.L. Trask, Mind the Gaffe! Harper, 2006)


  • Gerunds and Present Participles
    "Present participles and gerunds look similar as words, and they also look similar as phrases. Again, it is the -ing verbal form that causes this problem. To clearly distinguish these, we need to consider their grammatical functions. A present participle functions as a non-finite form of a verb phrase, after verbs of motion and position; it can be an adverb complement after these verbs; it can qualify/modify as an adjective does. In contrast, gerunds like nouns have naming roles and can occupy the place of nouns in many of their grammatical functions. Unlike nouns, they do not name persons, places, things, or events; they name actions, states, and behaviors."
    (Bernard O´Dwyer, Modern English Structures: Form, Function, And Position, 2nd ed. Broadview, 2006)

7.       tunci
7149 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 02:45 pm

 

a) Onun yaptığı gibi yap. ‘Do the way he did.’ Nasıl yap ? Onun yaptığı gibi --> adverb so dığı gibi is gerund.

                           

b) Annesi odaya girdiği gibi bebek ağlamayı bıraktı. ‘The baby stopped crying as soon as her mother entered the room.’ --> Ne zaman ağlamayı bıraktı.? --> Annesi odaya girer girmez  therefore it is gerund too. 

note : gerunds like diği gibi can have more than one function.

 

Two different meanings, two different structures (it shows in the form of the embedded subject GEN - NOM). The latter one is certainly a gerund but is the former also?  --> They both Gerund [Ulaç] In my opinion gerunds always have to do with time but maybe the Turkish definition is different.


Moha-ios liked this message
8.       si++
3785 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 02:59 pm

Gerund examples (I don´t think any of them functions as adverbs as in your examples):

 

  • "Feeling gratitude and not expressing it is like wrapping a present and not giving it."
    (William A. Ward)


  • "Shooting paintballs is not an art form."
    (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)


  • "Humor is laughing at what you haven´t got when you ought to have it."
    (Langston Hughes)


  • "Because they are nounlike, we can think of gerunds as names. But rather than naming persons, places, things, events, and the like, as nouns generally do, gerunds, because they are verbs in form, name activities or behaviors or states of mind or states of being."
    (Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar. Allyn & Bacon, 1998)


  • "All talk of winning the people by appealing to their intelligence, of conquering them by impeccable syllogism, is so much moonshine."
    (H. L. Mencken)


  • "Eighty percent of success is showing up."
    (Woody Allen)

9.       tunci
7149 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 03:02 pm

 

Verbal is general name but Zarf fiil [ulaç] is subcategory of it that effect the time,state of verbs and it functions as Zarf [adverb]. That is why it can call as Gerund.

 

Moha-ios liked this message
10.       si++
3785 posts
 13 Jul 2012 Fri 03:14 pm

 

Quoting tunci

 

Verbal is general name but Zarf fiil [ulaç] is subcategory of it that effect the time,state of verbs and it functions as Zarf [adverb]. That is why it can call as Gerund.

 

 

My understanding is that gerund is not "zarffiil". But you have a title wth "gerund" and are giving "zarffiil" examples.

 

I would like to be corrected by an English native speaker who knows the subject very well if my understanding is wrong. Anybody?

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