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Turkish Grammar-1 : Introduction


a) Most of the words that start with "c, f, g, h, j, l, r, v" and "z" are foreign.

cami (mosque), cumhuriyet (republict), fare [1mouse (animal), 2mouse (hardware)], fil (elephant), fikir (idea, thinking), fakir (poor), hayal (dream), hikâye (story), hâl (1case, 2position), harf (letter, character), hece (syllable), jaguar (jaguar), limon (lemon), liman (harbour), lokanta (restaurant), lâle (tulip), lise (high school), rüzgar (wind), rüya (dream), risk (risk), rahat (relax, still), roman (novel), vücut (body), vadi (valley), ve (and), vah┼či (wild), zarar (harm), zaman (time), zeki (clever, intelligent), zihin (mind), zincir (chain),......

But these are Turkish:

gemi (ship) (ancient Turkish: kemi), gizem (secret), hortlak (undead), hepsi (all of them), hiç (never) halk (people, folk).....

b) No word start with "─č" in Turkish. This is about Turkey Turkish. Otherwise in other dialects, they may start. For example: in Crimean Turkish.

c) None of the real Turkish word start with two consonants or two vowels.

tren (train), kral (king), trafik (traffic), ....

ç) Usually there aren´t two consonants or two vowels in the end of the root of a Turkish word.

risk (risk), a┼čk (love), test (test, trial), S─▒rp (Serbian), film (film, movie), h─▒rs (ambition, passion, greed), kö┼čk (villa, mansion), baht (chance, luck), ┼čans (chance, luck), mert (brave), ┼čart (condition, proviso), , z─▒rh ....

But these are Turkish. Most of them bases on Ancient Turkish:

k─▒rk (forty), Türk (Turkish (nation)), yurt (1homeland, 2dormitory), ilk (first), dört (four), ....

d) The Turkish words don´t end with incontinuant soft consonants (b, c, d, g) except a few exceptions.

The exceptions are these

ad (1name, 2noun), sac (sheet metal), öd (bile), ud (oud)

e) The pronunciation and writing are always exactly the same in Turkish. A letter has only one pronunciation.



There are 29 letters in Turkish alphabet. 8 of them are vowel, 21 of them are consonant.


Aa (a) Bb (be) Cc (ce) Çç (çe) Dd (de) Ee (e) Ff (fe) Gg (ge) ─×─č (yumu┼čak ge) Hh (he) I─▒ (─▒) ─░i (i) Jj (je) Kk (ke) Ll (le) Mm (me) Nn (ne) Oo (o) Öö (ö) Pp (pe) Rr (re) Ss (se) ┼×┼č (┼če) Tt (te) Uu (u) Üü (ü) Vv (ve) Yy (ye) Zz (ze)

A: arm (kol), car (araba), money (para),

Â: a bit softer/lighter and a bit longer "a"

B: book (kitap),

C: june (haziran), Georgia (Gürcistan)

Ç: chair (sandalye), China (Çin)

D: devil (┼čeytan), destiny (kader)

E: well (iyi), man (adam), May (may─▒s)

F: foot (ayak), 

G:game (oyun), to begin (ba┼člamak)

─×:in German --> grün (g─čün) (ye┼čil) 

H: hi! (selam!, merhaba!), head (ba┼č)

I : in Russian --> bI , in Albanian-->ë , the (d─▒) (-)

─░ : million (milyon), with (ile, -le/-la/-yle/-yla)

Î: sea (sii) (deniz), deep (derin), to see (görmek)

J : garage (garaj)

K: to come (gelmek), king (kral),

L: wild (vah┼či), long (uzun), tall (uzun)

M: moon (Ay), month (ay)

N: name (ad, isim), clean (temiz)

O: long (uzun), responsibility (sorumluluk), novel (roman)

Ö: bird (ku┼č), girl (k─▒z)

P: paper (kâ─č─▒t), deep (derin), soup (çorba)

R: rule (kural), rain (ya─čmur)

S: to sleep (uyumak), soft (yumu┼čak)

┼×: ship (gemi), Turkish (1Türk (nation), 2Türkçe (dil))

T: time (zaman),

U: rule (kural), Lucie, 

Û: moon (ay), noon (ö─čle, ö─člen)

Ü: exactly same as the "ü" which is in German, "y" in Finnish

V: vine (┼čarap)

Y: yellow (sar─▒)

Z: zero (s─▒f─▒r)

Koto, MaurizioTK, yasmin SN, itachix666, moaaz and 11 others liked this lesson

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Turkish lesson by admin
Level: beginner