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Turkish Grammar-1 : Introduction

SOME GENERAL RULES

a) Most of the words that start with "c, f, g, h, j, l, r, v" and "z" are foreign.

cami (mosque), cumhuriyet (republict), fare [1mouse (animal), 2mouse (hardware)], fil (elephant), fikir (idea, thinking), fakir (poor), hayal (dream), hikâye (story), hâl (1case, 2position), harf (letter, character), hece (syllable), jaguar (jaguar), limon (lemon), liman (harbour), lokanta (restaurant), lâle (tulip), lise (high school), rüzgar (wind), rüya (dream), risk (risk), rahat (relax, still), roman (novel), vücut (body), vadi (valley), ve (and), vahi (wild), zarar (harm), zaman (time), zeki (clever, intelligent), zihin (mind), zincir (chain),......

But these are Turkish:

gemi (ship) (ancient Turkish: kemi), gizem (secret), hortlak (undead), hepsi (all of them), hiç (never) halk (people, folk).....

b) No word start with "" in Turkish. This is about Turkey Turkish. Otherwise in other dialects, they may start. For example: in Crimean Turkish.

c) None of the real Turkish word start with two consonants or two vowels.

tren (train), kral (king), trafik (traffic), ....

ç) Usually there aren´t two consonants or two vowels in the end of the root of a Turkish word.

risk (risk), ak (love), test (test, trial), S覺rp (Serbian), film (film, movie), h覺rs (ambition, passion, greed), kök (villa, mansion), baht (chance, luck), ans (chance, luck), mert (brave), art (condition, proviso), , z覺rh ....

But these are Turkish. Most of them bases on Ancient Turkish:

k覺rk (forty), Türk (Turkish (nation)), yurt (1homeland, 2dormitory), ilk (first), dört (four), ....

d) The Turkish words don´t end with incontinuant soft consonants (b, c, d, g) except a few exceptions.

The exceptions are these

ad (1name, 2noun), sac (sheet metal), öd (bile), ud (oud)

e) The pronunciation and writing are always exactly the same in Turkish. A letter has only one pronunciation.

 

TURKISH ALPHABET

There are 29 letters in Turkish alphabet. 8 of them are vowel, 21 of them are consonant.

 

Aa (a) Bb (be) Cc (ce) Çç (çe) Dd (de) Ee (e) Ff (fe) Gg (ge) (yumuak ge) Hh (he) I覺 (覺) 襤i (i) Jj (je) Kk (ke) Ll (le) Mm (me) Nn (ne) Oo (o) Öö (ö) Pp (pe) Rr (re) Ss (se)  (e) Tt (te) Uu (u) Üü (ü) Vv (ve) Yy (ye) Zz (ze)


A: arm (kol), car (araba), money (para),

Â: a bit softer/lighter and a bit longer "a"

B: book (kitap),

C: june (haziran), Georgia (Gürcistan)

Ç: chair (sandalye), China (Çin)

D: devil (eytan), destiny (kader)

E: well (iyi), man (adam), May (may覺s)

F: foot (ayak), 

G:game (oyun), to begin (balamak)

:in German --> grün (gün) (yeil) 

H: hi! (selam!, merhaba!), head (ba)

I : in Russian --> bI , in Albanian-->ë , the (d) (-)

襤 : million (milyon), with (ile, -le/-la/-yle/-yla)

Î: sea (sii) (deniz), deep (derin), to see (görmek)

J : garage (garaj)

K: to come (gelmek), king (kral),

L: wild (vahi), long (uzun), tall (uzun)

M: moon (Ay), month (ay)

N: name (ad, isim), clean (temiz)

O: long (uzun), responsibility (sorumluluk), novel (roman)

Ö: bird (ku), girl (k覺z)

P: paper (kâ覺t), deep (derin), soup (çorba)

R: rule (kural), rain (yamur)

S: to sleep (uyumak), soft (yumuak)

: ship (gemi), Turkish (1Türk (nation), 2Türkçe (dil))

T: time (zaman),

U: rule (kural), Lucie, 

Û: moon (ay), noon (öle, ölen)

Ü: exactly same as the "ü" which is in German, "y" in Finnish

V: vine (arap)

Y: yellow (sar覺)

Z: zero (s覺f覺r)


Koto, MaurizioTK, yasmin SN, itachix666, moaaz and 11 others liked this lesson


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