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Turkish Grammar-3 : Consonants-1








After a small vocabulary part, let´s come to our real matter.


YUMUAK , j, l, m, n, r, v, y, z b, c, d, g
SERT f, h, s, p, ç, t, k


You see the incontinuant soft consonants above. What are they? B, C, D and G. Also you see the incontinuant hard consonants: P, Ç, T, K


Imagine a word. It ends with an incontinuant hard.

And imagine a suffix that starts with an incontinuant soft. Add that suffix to that word. The incontinuant soft consonant hardens.

The event is just this! Don´t exaggerate. Besides, try to remember the major vowel harmony. Try to also remember the minor vowel harmony, because they are necessary, too. You will always need them.


I will explain these by the example suffixes:

a) Bulunma Hâl Eki (Location Case (in/at/on)) (-de/-da/-te/-ta)

hastane (hospital)


If we wrote "da", the major vowel harmony wouldn´t keep on, like you remember.


Kim hastanede? (Who is at the hospital?)


orman (forest)

tehlike (danger)


Ormandaki tüm hayvanlar tehlikede. (All the animals in the forest are in a danger)


koltuk (armchair)

koltuk+da-->koltukta=in the bed/on the bed

d-->t (da-->ta)


Ablam koltukta deil (My older sister isn´t on the armchair)


kitap (book)

Last letter? "p": incontinuant hard.

kitap+da-->kitapta=in the book


Bunu o kitapta okudum. (I have read this on that book)


sonuç (result)

Last letter? "ç": incontinuant hard

sonuç+da-->sonuçta=eventually, on the upshot (direct: in the result)


Sonuçta bu yaln覺zca bir oyun. (This is just a game eventually.)


sepet (basket)

t: incontinuant hard

sepet+de-->sepette=in the basket


Elmalar sepette. (The apples are in the basket)


s覺n覺f (1class, 2classroom)

f: continuant hard

s覺n覺f+da-->s覺n覺fta=in the classroom


S覺n覺fta kaç kii var? (How many people are there in the classroom?)


Bitlis (a city in the Eastern Anatolia)

s: continuant hard



Day覺m Bitlis´te (My uncle is in Bitlis)


Why apostrophe? City names are a kind of proper nouns. As long as we don´t bring derivative suffixes, apostrophe requires.


yar覺 (race, racing)

: continuant hard



Yar覺taki kaza çok tehlikeli bir kazayd覺 ama sürücüye bir ey olmad覺. (The crash in the race was a too dangerous crash but nothing happened to the driver.)


Semih (a Turkish male name)

h: continuant hard



Kitab覺m Semih´te (My book is at Semih)


Why apostrophe? Because person names too are proper noun.


gece (night)

üç (three)

sokak (street)


ç is an incontinuant hard consonant. d is an incontinuant soft consonant.


k is an incontinuant hard consonant. d is an incontinuant soft consonant.


Gece üçte sokakta ne yap覺yordunuz? (What were you doing at the street at three o´clock in the night?) 


b) -ce

b.a) Dil isimleri (Language names)

Gürcistan (Georgia)

Gürcü (Georgian (nation))

Gürcü+ce-->Gürcüce (Georgian (language))

襤ngiltere (England)

襤ngiliz (English (nation))

襤ngiliz+ce-->襤ngilizce (English (language))

Rusya (Russia)

Rus (Russian (nation))

Rus+ca-->Rua (Russian (language))

s: continuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

Arnavutluk (Albania)

Arnavut (Albanian (nation))

Arnavut+ca-->Arnavua (Albanian (language))

t: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

H覺rvatistan (Croatia)

H覺rvat (Croatian (nation))

H覺rvat+ca-->H覺rvaa (Croatian (language))

t: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

TÜRK襤YE (Turkey)

TÜRK (Turkish (nation))

TÜRK+CE-->Türe (Turkish (language))

k: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

Norveç (Norway)

Norveç+ce-->Norveççe (Norwegian (language))

襤sveç (Sweden)

襤sveç+ce--->襤sveççe (Swedish (language))

ç: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft

S覺rbistan (Serbia)

S覺rp (Serbian (nation))

S覺rp+ca----->S覺ra (Serbian (language))

p: incontinuant hard

c: incontinuant soft


b.b) Yakla覺kl覺k (Approximateness)

k覺sa (short)

k覺sa+ce-->k覺saca (not short, but close to short)

K覺saca bir çocuktu. (He was a shortish child)

büyük (big)

büyük+ce-->büyüe (not big, but close to big)

Büyükçe bir alanda toplanm覺t覺k. (We had gathered in a biggish square)


geni (large)

geni+ce-->geniçe (not large, but close to large)

Geniçe bir mezar. ((It´s) a largish grave)

vs. vs. vs....

This suffix (-ce) has a few tasks more. But it is not necessary to explain those tasks now.


c) -den

c.a) ablative case : from

c.b) becuse of : -den (dolay覺)* : *it is opitonal to use or not to use.

c.c c.d and some more...


Matematik (Maths)


k is an incontinuant hard consonant. d is an incontinuant soft consonant.


Matematikten anlam覺yorum. (I don´t understand about the maths.)


gürültü (noise)

sessizlik (silence)


k is an incontinuant hard. d is, contrarily, soft. d-->t


Gürültüden deil, sessizlikten holan覺r覺m. (I like the silence, not the noise.)


üzüntü (sorrow)



Üzüntüden ne dediini bilmiyor. (She doesn´t know what she says because of the sorrow.)


yar覺k (slot)


k is incontinuant hard. d is soft.


Su yar覺ktan içeriye s覺z覺yor. (The water is oozing inside from the slot.)


ba (1head, 2the first time of a duration, 3main, 4...6...7leader,..)


is a continuant hard consonant. d is soft. d-->t


Onu batan düünecektin! (You had to think it earlier!) (purely: You would think it as you would start this, now it is too late to do more things.)


yüksek (high)

ses (1voice, 2sound)


s is a continuand hard consonant. d is soft. d-->t


Yüksek sesten rahats覺z oluyoruz. (We are disturbed of the high voice.)


d) -gi


sevmek (to love)


sev + gi -------------> sevgi (love)


Sevgi olmazsa evlilik mutlaka biter. (The wedding absolutely ends up unless there is any love.)


katmak (1to add, 2to put sth in, ...)


kat + g覺 -------------->katk覺 (contribution)


Derneimize katk覺da bulunmak ister misiniz? (Would you like to contribute to our foundation?)


There are more suffixes to give as an example but I think you have comprehended the main logic, haven´t you? Ask what you haven´t understood.

itachix666, eline, GulBahar, Ashendy, Natalya** and zizi76 liked this lesson

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