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Turkish Grammar-3 : Consonants-2

 

SOFTENING OF CONSONANT

 

The softening of the consonant is more detailed than the hardening. The quantity of the exceptions is a bit more than the quantity of the exceptions in the hardening topic. (roughly %10). By the way, as a native speaker, I remember no exceptions in the hardening. A really! There is no exception in the hardening of the consonant. Wow! It is one of the most regular topics of Turkish. In fact, so is the hardening.

 

Let´s remember the incontinuant hard consonants: Ç, K, P, T.

Let´s remember also the incontinuant soft consonants: C, G, B, D

 

By the way! I have forgetten to say that the hardening relationships are only "c-->ç", "d-->t", "g-->k" . (((Thou are gonna ask "why not ´b-->p´ ?". Because there is no suffix that starts with "b". But, be sure, "b" would harden to "p" if there would be a suffix that starts with "b".))) Otherwise, there is no hardening like "g-->t", "b-->s", "c--->t" etc.

 

Imagine a word that ends with incontinuant hard. And we are bringing a suffix that starts with a vowel. The incontinuant hard consonant will soften and become incontinuant soft. The event is this!

 

The relationships of softening are : p-->b, k--> (usually)/g (rarely), t--->d, ç--->c

 

I shall explain this event by the example suffixes again. Then I shall explain the exceptional situations too.

 

a) Yönelme hâli eki (-e/-a) (Dative Case Suffix)

 

ev (home, house)

ev+e-->eve (to the house, to home)

Eve gidiyorum. (I´m going home) (direct: I´m going to the house)

 

okul (school)

okul+e-->okula (to the school)

Bugün okula gitmedim. (I didn´t go to the school today)

Hangi okula gidiyorsun? (Which school do you study in?) (direct: To which school are you going?)

 

müzik (music)

müzik+e-->müzie (to the music)

 

Müzik dinliyorum (I´m listening to music) (direct: I´m listening music)

Müzie ilgi duyuyordu. (He was interested in the music) (direct: He was hearing interest to the music)

 

sokak (street)

sokak+e--->sokaa (to the street)

Yanl覺 sokaa girmiiz. (We have come into the false street)

 

ilaç (drug, medicine)

ihtiyaç (necessity, need, requirement)

ilaç+e--->ilaca (to the drug)

 

襤laca ihtiyac覺m yok (I don´t need drug) (direct: I haven´t got necessity to the drug)

 

çorap (sock)

çorap+e-->çoraba (to the sock)

 

Portakal suyu hangi çoraba döküldü? (Onto which sock did the orange juice pour?)

 

kal覺p (1pattern, 2mould, mold)

kal覺p+e-->kal覺ba (to the pattern, to the mould)

 

Çikolatalar覺 bu kal覺ba döktük. (We poured the chocolates into that mould)

Türkçe´de bu kal覺ba çok rastlars覺n. (You run against this pattern in Turkish very much)

 

kalp (heart)

kalp+e-->kalbe (to the heart) (Remember the word "kalp" is an exception for major vowel harmony. Look at the second lesson)

 

Sigara kalbe zararl覺. (The cigarette is harmful to the heart)

 

"t" is the letter that the softening happens least.

 

kilit (lock)

kilit+e-->kilide (to the lock)

 

Anahtar覺 kilide soktu ve kap覺y覺 açt覺. (He tucked the key into the lock and opened the door)

 

b) -i : 1accusative, 2possessive of third person, 3 a derivative suffix

etek (skirt)

etek+i-->etei

Aye´nin etei (Aye´s skirt)

Aye o etei ald覺. (Aye bought that skirt)

 

ayak (foot)

ayak+i --> aya覺

Aya覺nda yara var. (There is an injure at his foot)

Sol aya覺 daha iyi kullan覺yor. (He is using the left foot better)

 

kanat (wing)

kanat+i-->kanad覺

Kuun kanad覺 bembeyazd覺. (The wing of the bird was completely white)

Tak覺m dünkü maçta sol kanad覺 ihmal etti. (The team neglected the left wing in the match yesterday)

 

襤stisnaî Durumlar (Exceptional Situations)

 

a) The softening happens at the monosyllabic words rarely. I´m writing a few exceptions.

 

çok (many, much), gök (sky),  cep (pocket), taç (crown),  renk (colour) and perhaps just a few more. I can´t remember now.

 

b) The verbs will be told later. And you will see the "t" of only the verbs "git- (go)" and "et- (make)" will soften.

 

tutmak=to hold, --> tutaca覺m (i will hold)

bitmek=to finish (intransitive) --->bitiyor (it is finishing)

gitmek=to go ---> gidiyoruz (we are going)

yard覺m etmek=to help --> yard覺m edelim (let´s help)

vs.

 

c) If we bring a suffix that starts with vowel to a proper noun that has ended up with an incontinuant hard consonant, the incontinuant hard consonant usually softens in the pronunciation, but never softens in the writing.

 

Mehmet (a Turkish boy name)

Mehmet+in(genitive) --> Mehmet´in (of Mehmet) ("t" doesn´t soften in pronunciation)

Sinop (the northest city of Anatolia)

Sinop+e(dative)---> Sinop´a (to Sinop) ("t" doesn´t soften in pronunciation)

Uak+in (genitive) ---> Uak´覺n ("k" changes to "" in pronunciation)

vs.

 

ç) If the word is disyllabic and ends with "-et/-at", the softening usually doesn´t happen.

 

exceptions: hasat (reaping),  ceset (corpse), kilit (lock), mabet (temple), kanat (wing), senet (deed, act (document))

 

d) If it is longer than disyllabic and is ending up with "-t", the softening usually doesn´t happen.

 

examples: iskelet (skeleton), dinamit (dynamite), ticaret (merchant), internet (internet) vs. vs. vs. ...

exception: piramit (pyramid)

 

e) "-iyet" is an Arabic suffix. The words that end up with this doesn´t soften. There is no exception.

 

cumhuriyet (republic), 襤slamiyet (Islam), hürriyet (özgürlük) (freedom), kraliyet (kingdom),  vs. vs. vs. ....

 

f) The softening can happen at the word that end with "nk", "nç", "nt". The exceptions are these:

 

kent (the place which is city or approximately city)

bank (bench (furniture)), tank (tank)

 

 

MULTIPLYING OF CONSONANT

 

The words that multiplying of consonant are these:

 

af (the forgiving)

s覺r (secret)

hak (1right,authority, 2jus, justice)

hat (line)

ret (rejection, denial)

haz (zest)

zan (supposing) (this is used too rarely)

 

I remember no words except these.

 

This is not a large topic, on the contrary, i´ts too limited.

 

They are monosyllabic and their last letter is consonant. If we bring a suffix that starts with vowel, that consonant redoubles, multiplies.

 

Why?

Because they are the words that have come from Arabic or Persian, namely foreign origined. And their original shapes are "aff", "s覺rr", "hakk", "redd" etc.

 

Bu hazz覺 yaamak çok güzel. (It is so nice to have this zest ) (direct: ......to live this zest)

 

Sizin buna hakk覺n覺z yok. (You have no right for this) (direct: .... to this)


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