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Turkish Grammar-4 : N, S, , Y

Now, it´s the time to tell the most important second matter/topic of Turkish.

 

Imagine a word that ended with a vowel. Let´s add a suffix that starts with a vowel. One of the letters "n, s, and y" come between those two vowels. That vowel combinates the word and the suffix. By the way, don´t think that is irregular. It´s regular. Really. Quite regular. It has just a few exceptions.

 

In the end of the lesson, i will tell those exceptional situations.

 

 

The least used one is "". It is used only in the distributive numerical adjectives. 

 

The distributive adjective suffix is "-er"

 

1 : bir

Bir arabam var. (I have a car)

bir+er-->birer

Birer arabam覺z var. (Each of us has a car)

 

3: üç

hak (1warranty, 2right (a right to be able to do something))

üç+er-->üçer

Bu oyunda üç hakk覺n var. (You have three rights in this game)

Bu oyunda üçer hakk覺n覺z var. (Each of you has three rights in this game)

 

10: on

on+er-->onar

S覺navda geometriden on soru vard覺. (There were ten questions from geometry at the exam)

S覺navda geometri, matematik ve corafyadan onar soru vard覺. (There were ten questions from each of geometry, mathematic and geography)

 

7: yedi

yedi+er-->yedier (Both of "i" and "e" are vowels. So as to separate them, "" came as combinative letter.)

Öretmen örencileri yedier kiilik dört gruba ay覺rd覺. (The teacher categorized the students in four group that each of them have seven students)

 

16: on alt覺

on alt覺+er-->on alt覺ar

Her tak覺m on alt覺 maç yap覺yor. (Every team are doing sixteen matches)

Tak覺mlar on alt覺ar maç yap覺yor. (Each of the teams are doing sixteen matches)

 

S

 

If a word is ending with vowel, and if we bring the possessive suffix of the 3rd person to it, the combinative letter is "s".

 

The possessive suffix of the 3rd person is "-i(覺,u,ü)"

 

ön (frontside, fore)

ön+i-->önü

Hastanenin önü kalabal覺kt覺. (The front of the hospital was crowded)

 

By the way, why not "öni"? Look at the lesson of minor vowel harmony. Can "i" come after "ö"?

 

ders (lesson)

ders+i -->dersi

Hoca, bugünkü dersi iptal etmi. (The teacher has cancelled the lesson which is today) ("-i" is accusative case here)

Onun dersi sabah. (His/her lesson is in the morning) ("-i" is possessive here)

 

araba (car)

araba+i --> arabas覺 (Both of "a" and "覺" are vowels)

Onun arabas覺 bu mu? (Is his/her car this?)

 

Türkçe (Turkish)

Türkçe+i -->Türkçesi

Türkçesi çok iyi. (He can speak Turkish very well) (direct: His Turkish is very good)

 

korku (fear, scare)

korku+i-->korkusu

Korkusu buna engel oldu. (His fear prevented this) (direct: His fear became obstacle to this)

 

say覺 (number)

say覺+i --> say覺s覺

On say覺s覺 (The number ten)

Uurlu say覺s覺 sekizdi. (His lucky number was eight.)

 

N

 

poistional endings:

-i (覺, i, u, ü) (belirtme hâli) (accusative)

-e (e, a) (yönelme hâli) (dative)

-de (de, da, te, ta)(bulunma hâli) (locative)

-den (den, dan, ten, tan) (ayr覺lma hâli) (ablative)

-in (覺n, in, un, ün)(tamlayan hâli) (genitive)

 

If we bring case suffix after the possessive of the third person, the combinative letter is "n". It doesn´t matter if there are two vowels or not. 

 

ev (house, home)

ev+i(pos.)+de (loc.) --> evinde

Onun evindeydik (We were at his home)

ev+i(pos.)+e (dat.) --> evine

Sonunda evine geri döndü. (He returned his home finally)

 

son (end)

son+i (pos.) --> sonu

son+i(pos.)+de(loc.)-->sonunda (finally) (direct: in its end)

Filmin sonunda ne oluyor? (What is happening in the end of the movie?)

Sonunda herkes geldi. (Everyone has come finally)

 

kilise (church)

aziz (saint)

kilise+i (pos.) -->kilisesi

kilise+i(pos.)+i (acc.) -->kilisesini

Aziz George Kilisesi (the Church St. George)

Aziz George Kilisesi+i --> Aziz George Kilisesi´ni (apostrophe is because it is a proper noun)

Aziz George Kilisesi´ni biliyor musun? (Do you know the Church Saint George)

 

cami (mosque) (that´s an Arabic origined word)

merkez (center, centre)

cami+i (pos.) --> camisi (or originally: camii)

Kocatepe Camisi´ni biliyor musun?/Kocatepe Camii´yi biliyor musun? (Do you know the Mosque Kocatepe?)

(the situation "ii" is only for "cami")

 

yeni (new)

yeni araba (new car)

yeni bir araba (a new car)

yeni+i (pos.) ---> yenisi (the new one) (direct: its new)

yeni+i(pos.)+i(acc.) -->yenisini

Bu gömlek art覺k giyilemez, yenisini almak lâz覺m. (This shirt can be worn no more, it requires to buy the new one)

 

üniversite (university)

üniversite+i (pos.) -->üniversitesi

Ankara Üniversitesi (the Ankara University)

üniversite+i (pos.) + de (loc.) --> üniversitesinde

Ankara Üniversitesi´nde okuyorum. (I´m studying at Ankara University)

 

memleket (the place where you were born. this can be a country, a city or a village)

memleket+i(pos.)-->memleketi

memleket+i(pos.)+e(dative)-->memleketine

S覺navlar覺 bittikten sonra memleketine geri dönecek. (He will return his homeland after his exams ended up)

 

araba (car)

renk (colour)

araba+i(pos.)--->arabas覺

araba+i(pos.)+in(genitive) -->arabas覺n覺n

renk+i(pos.) -->rengi

Arabas覺n覺n rengi siyah deil. (The colour of his car isn´t black)

 

o=1he/she/it, 2that (demonstrative adjective), 3that (demonstrative pronoun)

u=between "that" and "this"

bu=this

 

If we bring whichever suffix to "o", "bu" and "u", the combinative letter is "n".

 

o+i(accusative)

Onu tan覺yamad覺m; çok deimi. (I couldn´t recognize him, he has changed very much)

 

bu+a(dative)

gerek=necessity, need

Buna gerek yok. (There is no necessity to this.)

 

o+dan(ablative)

Kitab覺 ondan ald覺m. (I bought the book from him)

 

o+lar(plural)-->onlar=1they, 2those

bu+lar(plural)-->bunlar=these

 

If we bring genitive suffix to a word that ended with vowel, the combinative is "n".

 

ev+in(genitive)-->evin=of the house

Çin+in(genitive)-->Çin´in=of China

istasyon+in(genitive)-->istasyonun=of the station

y覺l+in(genitive)-->y覺l覺n=of the year

kelime+in(genitive)-->kelimenin=of the word

dünya+in(genitive)--->dünyan覺n=of the world

ark覺+in(genitive)--->ark覺n覺n=of the song

Türkiye+in(genitive)--->Türkiye´nin=of Turkey

Ankara Üniversitesi+in(genitive)-->Ankara Üniversitesi´nin=of the Ankara University

Millî Eitim Bakanl覺覺+in(genitive)--->Millî Eitim Bakanl覺覺´n覺n=of the Ministry of National Education

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti+in(genitive)--->Türkiye Cumhuriyeti´nin=of the Turkish Republic

 

Y

 

Imagine a word that ends with vowel. Let´s add a suffix. If the suffix starts with vowel, the combinative letter is "y". "y" is the most used one of combinative letters.

 

And I´m gonna explain by the suffixes again:

 

uzay (space)

uydu (satelitte)

uzay+e(dative) --> uzaya

Uzaya yeni bir uydu f覺rlat覺ld覺. (A new satelitte was shot into the space)

 

ülke (country)

hangi (which)

ülke+e(dative) -->ülkeye

Hangi ülkeye gideceksin? (Which country will you go to?)

 

kedi (cat)

kedi+i(accusative) --> kediyi

Kedi besleyeceim. (I will feed (a) cat)

Kediyi besleyeceim. (I will feed the cat)

 

Türkçe

Türkçe+i(accusative) --> Türkçe´yi

襤yi Türkçe konuamaz. (He can´t speak Turkish well) (direct: he can´t speak good Turkish)

Türkçeyi iyi konuamaz. (He can´t speak Turkish well)

 

örtü (cover)

örtü+i (accusative) --> örtüyü

(Remember the minor vowel harmony. Can "i" come after "ü"?)

Masan覺n üzerindeki örtüyü getir. (Bring the cover that is on the table)

 

örenci (student)

örenci+im(personal suffix of 1st singular) --> örenciyim (i am student)

 

iyi (good)

iyi+im(personal sf. of 1st sing.) --> iyiyim (i am good)

 

襤ST襤SNAÎ DURUMLAR (EXCEPTIONAL SITUATIONS)

 

su=water

The combinative letter is never "s" when we bring possessive suffix to "su". The combinative is "y"

 

su+i(it doesn´t matter accusative or possessive) --> suyu

 

Bu köyün suyu çok temiz. (The water of this village is very clean)

 

ne=what

The combinative letter can be both of "s" and "y" if we bring possessive suffix to "ne".

 

ne+i(possessive)-->neyi/nesi

ne+i(accusative)-->neyi

 

-Bu adam onun nesi/neyi? (What of him is this man?)

-Amcas覺. (His uncle)


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