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Turkish Grammar-5: Nouns-2.a

One of kinds of the inflectional suffixes which can be brought to the noun are case suffixes (in more correct words: positional suffixes). We call them "hâl ekleri".

hâl=1case, 2situation, 3condition


There are six essential cases in Turkish:

1) yal覺n hâl (nominative case),

2) belirtme hâli (accusative case),

3) yönelme hâli (dative case),

4) bulunma hâli (location case),

5) ayr覺lma hâli (ablative case),

6) tamlayan hâli (genitive case)


A) Yal覺n Hâl


There is no article in Turkish.


B) Belirtme Hâli (i hâli) (-覺,i,u,ü)


It is used so as to make the noun direct object, like you may know from your own languages.


Kitap okudum. (I read (a) book)

Kitab覺 okudum. (I read the book)


Oyun kazand覺k. (We won (a) game)

Oyunu kazand覺k. (We won the game)


Bu sitede Türkçe öreniyorlar. (They are learning Turkish on this site)

Bu sitede Türkçeyi öreniyorlar. (They are learning the Turkish language on this site)


adam (man)


Bu adam覺 dün de görmütüm. (I have seen that man yesterday as well.)


ders (lesson)


En sonki dersi iyi dinleyemedim. (I couldn´t listen to the last lesson well.)


resim (picture)


Nereden resimler buldun? (Where did you find (some) pictures?) (direct: From where did you find (some) pictures?)

Resimleri nereden buldun? (Where did you find the pictures?) (direct: From where did you find the pictures?)


herkes (everybody)

herkes+i (accusative)

Müdür herkesi odas覺na ça覺rd覺. (The director called everybody to his room.)


dosya (1document, 2file (computer))



Dosya indirmek istedim. (I wanted to download a file.)

Dosyay覺 indirmek bilgisayar覺n覺z için zararl覺 olabilir. (It may be harmful for your computer to download the file)


kimse, hiç kimse (nobody)

kimse+i / hiç kimse+i (accusative)

Kimseyi / Hiç kimseyi dinlemek istemiyorum. (I want to listen to nobody.)


k覺z (girl)

olan (boy)


Ama k覺z o olan覺 hâlâ unutamam覺t覺. (But the girl hasn´t forgetten that boy yet)


telefon (telephone)

telefon+i (accusative) --> telefonu

Üç kez çald覺 ama telefonu açmad覺m. (It rang three times but I didn´t open the telephone)


(telefon açmak=to call something by telephone. (direct:to open telephone to ...))

* I will examplify this in the dative case topic.


konu (matter, topic)


Bu konuyu anlamad覺m. (I didn´t understand this topic)


gösteri (show)


Gösteri düzenlemiler (They have organised a show)

Gösteriyi onlar düzenlemiler. (They have organised the show) (I´m not going to the detail of the emphasise according to the order of the sentence for now. It will be explained in another lesson)


sen (you (singular))


Seni seviyorum. (I love you)


C) Yönelme hâli (e hâli) (-e/a)


siz (you (plural or respect))


Size ihtiyac覺m覺z var. (We need you) (direct: We have got necessity to you)


i (work)


襤e saat dokuzda balar覺z. (We start work at nine o´clock) (direct: We start to the work at nine o´clock)


biz (we)


Bize yalan söylediniz. (You told us lies (directly: You told to us lies.)


bura (this place, here)


Buraya gel. (Come here) (direct: Come to here)


hiç kimse / kimse (nobody)


Kimseye inanm覺yorum=I believe in nobody. (direct: I am not believing to nobody)

Kimseye güvenmiyorum=I trust nobody (direct: I am not trusting to nobody)



Türkçeye iki ay önce balad覺m=I started Turkish two months ago. (direct: I started to Turkish two months ago)


sal覺k (health)


dikkat etmek (1to pay attention,2to take care)

Sal覺a dikkat etmek gerek. (It is needed to take care about health) (direct: To make attention to the health requires. )


o (1he/she/it, 2that (demonstrative))

â覺k (fallen in love)

Ben ona a覺覺m. (I have fallen in love with him/her) (direct: I am the fallen in love to him/her)


okul (school)


Okula gitmedim. (1 I didn´t go to the school, 2 I didn´t study at the school)


ev (house, home)


Eve ne zaman geleceksin? (When will you come home?) (direct: When will you come to home?)


kural (rules)

kural+lar (plural)+ a (dative)

Kurallara uymayan cezaland覺r覺lacakt覺r. (Who doesn´t obey the rules will be punished) (direct: ..... obey to the rules....)


anne (mother)


anne+m (possessive)+i (accusative)

aramak=1to search, to look for, 2to call (by telephone)

Hemen anneme telefon açt覺m=Hemen annemi arad覺m. (I called my mother immadiately)

(direct: I opened telephone to my mother immadiately)


Some prepoisitons which are used with dative case.


1) -e göre (according to)

dün (yesterday)

bugün (today)

hava (1air, 2weather, 3swank, 4... 5...)

dün+e göre

Hava bugün düne göre daha iyi. (Today the weather is better than yesterday) (direct: The weather is better today in comparison with yesterday)


ülke (country)

ülke+ler+e göre

Eitim sistemleri ülkelere göre deiebilir. (The education systems may be change according to the countries.)


kii (person)

yirmi (twenty)

kii+e göre

Bu plan yirmi kiiye göre yap覺ld覺, ama sonra dört kii daha geldi. Ne yapaca覺z? (This plan has been done according to twenty people, but four people more came later. What shall we do?)


kural (rule)

kural+lar+a göre

Her eyi kurallara göre yapt覺k. (We did everything according to the rules.)


örenci (student)

örenci+ler (plural)+e göre

Örencilere göre bu sistem çok kötü sorunlar yaratacak. (This system will create too bad problems in opinion of students.) (direct: ............ according to the students)


2) -e kadar (until, till)


akam (evening)

akam+e kadar

Bugün akama kadar burada olaca覺m. (I will be here till evening today)


cadde (mainstreet)

köpek (dog)

ben (I)

ben+i (accusative)

cadde+e kadar

Köpek beni caddeye kadar kovalad覺 (The dog chased me until the main street.)


en geç (latest)

dört (four)

gün (day)

haber (news)

vermek (to give)

haber vermek=to inform

gün+e kadar

Dört güne kadar size haber vereceiz. (We will inform you within four days) (direct: We will give news to you until four days)


3) -e ramen (although, though, despite)


yar覺 (race, racing)

yamur (rain)

yamur+e ramen

Yar覺, yamura ramen devam etti.(The race continued despite the rain)


tüm (whole, all)

itiraz (objection)

itiraz+ler(plural)+e ramen

Tüm itirazlara ramen karar deimedi. (The decision didn´t change despite all the objections)


I will write locative, ablative and genitive cases in the next lesson.

Khanhtramkk and itachix666 liked this lesson

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