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Turkish Grammar-6: Verbs-2

Let´s remember the 1st type of personal suffixes:

 

-im I am
-sin you are
- he/she/it is
-iz we are
-siniz you are
-/-ler they are

 

There is a verb called "imek" in Turkish. This is almost always hidden. This is seen as "idi (i+di)", "imi (i+mi)", "ise (i+se)", "iyor (i+yor)". We are going to study "-yor" now.

 

The suffix of present continuous tense is "-yor". If you remember from the first lessons, the letters "o" and "ö" couldn´t be in the next syllables, namely, they would be able to be in only first syllable. Therefore you may get doubt, why "-yor"? This suffix is an exception. It has a historical story.

 

Let´s choose a verb randomly: yapmak (to do)

 

First step: remove the infinitive suffix ---> yap-

 

Second step: add the tense suffix.

If the last letter of the verb is consonant, "-yor" takes a narrow vowel in front of it. Let´s remember the narrow vowels: 覺,i,u,ü. And this narrow vowel are the verb "imek" indeed.

 

yap+(覺)yor ---> yap覺yor.

 

Third step: add the personal suffix.

 

yap+(覺)yor+im ----> yap覺yorum (I´m doing)

 

kahvalt覺 (breakfast)

Kahvalt覺 yap覺yorum. (i´m having breakfast (direct: i´m doing breakfast))

 

kasaba (the town)

nüfus (the population)

yaz (the summer)

yaz覺n (in the summer)

artmak (to increase) (intransitive)

 

kasaba+in nüfus+i ---> kasaban覺n nüfusu (the population of the town)

 

art+(覺)yor+ - ---> art覺yor (it´s increasing)

 

Kasaban覺n nüfusu yaz覺n art覺yor. (The population of the town is increasing in summer.)

 

I will write the narrow vowel of "imek" no more. You can learn it either as "imek" or the helper vowel. Both of the ways go the same result. I will write only "-yor"

 

film (the movie)

izlemek (1to watch, 2to follow)

If the last letter of the verb is large vowel (e,a), "y" makes those large vowels narrow (覺,i,u,ü).

 

izle+yor+iz ----> izliyoruz (we are watching)

 

-Ne yap覺yorsunuz? (yap+yor+siniz--->yap覺yorsunuz) (What are you doing?)

-Film izliyoruz. (We´re watching movie)

 

konumak (2to talk, 1to speak)

anlamak (to understand)

 

anla+ma(negation)+yor+im--->anlam覺yorum (I don´t understand (direct: I´m not understanding))

 

襤ngilizce anlam覺yorum, Türkçe konu. (Speak in Turkish, I don´t understand in English)

 

imdi (now, at the moment)

akam (the evening)

yemek (1the meal, 2to eat)

 

akam yemek+i ---> akam yemei (the dinner (direct: the evening meal))

ye+yor+lar--->yiyorlar (they are eating)

 

imdi akam yemei yiyorlar. (They´re having dinner at the moment)

 

her (every)

yaz (the summer)

genellikle (usually)

temmuz (July)

Akdeniz (the Mediterranean Sea)

gitmek (to go)

 

temmuz+da(loc.)--->temmuzda (in July)

git+yor+ - ---> gidiyor (s/he is going)

The softening of consonants is seen only at the verbs "etmek" and "gitmek" in this case.

 

Her yaz, genellikle temmuzda, Akdeniz´e gidiyor. (He is going to Mediterranean Sea every summer, usually in July.)

 

defter (the notebook)

hep (everytime, continuously)

ev (the house, the home)

unutmak (to forget)

 

defter+n(pos. of 2nd sing.)+i(accusative)--->defterini=1 your notebook (accusative), 2 his/her notebook (accusative)

senin=your

onun=his/her.

unut+yor+im--->unutuyorum (i forget (direct: i´m forgetting))

 

Senin defterini hep evde unutuyorum. (I forget your notebook at home everytime)

 

How to ask question in present continuous??

 

Do you remember the question tag? : "m覺"

 

Let´s choose two verbs randomly and conjugate it: bilmek (to know), anlamak (to understand)

 

Positive:

biliyorum anl覺yorum
biliyorsun anl覺yorsun
biliyor anl覺yor
biliyoruz anl覺yoruz
biliyorsunuz anl覺yorsunuz
biliyorlar anl覺yorlar

 

Negative:

bilmiyorum anlam覺yorum
bilmiyorsun anlam覺yorsun
bilmiyor anlam覺yor
bilmiyoruz anlam覺yoruz
bilmiyorsunuz anlam覺yorsunuz
bilmiyorlar anlam覺yorlar

 

Remove the infinitive suffix. Add "-yor" to the root. You need to bring the question tag to the root so as to make question.

 

examples both of positive and negative types:

 

anla+yor mu ---> anl覺yor mu?

mi+im --> miyim

mi+sin--> misin

mi+- ---> mi

mi+iz ---> miyiz

mi+siniz --> misiniz

-ler mi ---> -ler mi

 

anl覺yor muyum? (do i understand?) (direct: Am I understanding?)

anl覺yor musun? (do you understand?) (d. : Are you understanding?)

anl覺yor mu? (does s/he understand?) (d. : Is s/he understanding?)

anl覺yor muyuz? (do we understand?) (d. : Are we understanding?)

anl覺yor musunuz? (do you understand?) (d.:Are you understanding?)

anl覺yorlar m覺? (do they understand? (d. : Are they understanding?)

 

bil+me+yor mi ---> bilmiyor mu?

 

bilmiyor muyum? (don´t I know?) (direct: am I not knowing?)

bilmiyor musun? (don´t you know?) (direct: aren´t you knowing?)

bilmiyor mu? (doesn´t s/he know?) (d. : isn´t he/she knowing?)

bilmiyor muyuz? (don´t we know?) (d: aren´t we knowing?)

bilmiyor musunuz? (don´t you know? (d: aren´t you knowing?)

bilmiyorlar m覺? (don´t they know?) (d: aren´t they knowing?)

 

hat覺rlamak (to remember)

hat覺rl覺yorum hat覺rl覺yor muyum?
hat覺rl覺yorsun hat覺rl覺yor musun? 
 hat覺rl覺yor hat覺rl覺yor mu?
 hat覺rl覺yoruz hat覺rl覺yor muyuz?
hat覺rl覺yorsunuz hat覺rl覺yor musunuz?
hat覺rl覺yorlar hat覺rl覺yorlar m覺?
   
hat覺rlam覺yorum hat覺rlam覺yor muyum?
 hat覺rlam覺yorsun hat覺rlam覺yor musun?
hat覺rlam覺yor  hat覺rlam覺yor mu? 
 hat覺rlam覺yoruz hat覺rlam覺yor muyuz? 
hat覺rlam覺yorsunuz   hat覺rlam覺yor musunuz?
hat覺rlam覺yorlar   hat覺rlam覺yorlar m覺?

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