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Turkish Grammar-6: Verbs-3.1

!) At the positive case of present simple tense too, the 1st type of personal suffixes are used.

 

!) The suffix of present simple tense is "-r". If the verb is ending with a vowel, there is no event. Add "-r" directly. But if it´s ending with a consonant:

!!)If it is a monosyllabic verb, there are two possibilities:

!!!)If the verb is ending with a hard consonant (reminding the hard consonants: f,h,s,,p,ç,t,k), the helper vowel* is large, namely "e" or "a". (I think I don´t need to talk about vowel harmonies.)

!!!)If the verb is ending with a soft consonant, it may be either narrow or large.

!!) If it is a polisyllabic verb, the helper vowel is a narrow vowel.

 

!) At the negative case of this tense, the third type of personal suffixes are used. Let´s see the 3rd type. No, I shall show them when their time come.

 

yemek (to eat)

 

yemek --> ye- --> ye+r --> yer

 

yer+im----->yerim (I eat)

yer+sin---->yersin (you eat)

yer+- ----->yer (he/she/it eats)

yer+iz----->yeriz (we eat)

yer+siniz--->yersiniz (you eat)

yer+ler----->yerler (they eat)

 

yer miyim?---> (do I eat?)

yer misin?---->(do you eat?)

yer mi?------>(does s/he/it eat?)

yer miyiz?---->(do we eat?)

yer misiniz?--->(do you ea t?)

yerler mi?----->(do they eat?)

 

sabah (morning)

o (he/she/it)

yumurta (the egg)

genellikle/genelde (usually)

 

Sabah o genelde yumurta yer. (He usually eats egg in the morning)

 

yava (slow)

konumak (to understand)

daha iyi (better)

anlamak (to understand)

 

anla+r+iz ---> anlar覺z (we understand)

 

Yava konuursan daha iyi anlar覺z. (We understand better if you speak slowly)

 

Like you see, if the last letter of the verb is vowel, we add directly "-r", whether that vowel is monosyllabic or polisyllabic. There is no difference.

 

yatmak (1to lie (=uzanmak), 2to go to the bed)

Do you see "yat-" is ending with "t", namely with a hard consonant. You should understand quickly that a large vowel is gonna be helper.

 

yat+r ----> yatar (*helper vowel: it can´t be "yatr"; a vowel requires between those two consonants)

 

yat+r+lar ---> yatarlar

 

onlar (they)

hep (everytime, continuously)

yer (the floor)

 

yer+de(loc.)--->yerde (on the floor)

 

Onlar hep yerde yatar. (They always lie on the floor)

 

Why not "yatarlar" ? The sentence would be "Onlar hep yerde yatarlar". The plural meaning has already been expressed by the pronoun (onlar), "-ler" is unnecessary. But if you want, you can use of course.

 

bura (this place, here)

köprü (the bridge)

 üç (three)

dakika (the minute)

komak (to run)

 

bura+dan(abl.)--->buradan (from here)

köprü+e--------->köprüye (to the bridge)

dakika+da(loc.)--->dakikada (in minute)

ko+r m覺+s覺n ----->koar m覺s覺n? (do you run?)

 

Buradan köprüye üç dakikada koar m覺s覺n? (Do you run from here until the bridge in three minutes?)

 

"t" and "" were two of hard consonants. It was clear that a large vowel would come. But now it´s not very clear because the verbs are ending with soft consonants. I´m gonna write the most used approximately forty monosyllabic verbs as a chart. Don´t be afraid, it´s not difficult to learn them. If you remember, there are also about hundred irregular verbs in English and all of us have learnt them quickly. You have no right to say "I can´t learn".


THE VERB MEANING ROOT SHAPE
almak

1)to take

2)to buy

al- al覺r
bilmek to know bil- bilir
binmek to get on bin- biner
bozmak

1)to taint

2)to decompose,

3)to discompose,

to disorder

4)(about monet)*1

boz- bozar
bölmek to divide böl- böler
bulmak to find bul- bulur
çalmak

1)to steal

2)to play

(musical enstrument)

çal- çalar
dalmak to dive dal- dalar
dizmek to align diz- dizer
dolmak to be full dol- dolar
doymak to be satisfied doy- doyar
emek

to bend

(transitive)

e- eer
ezmek

1)to mash

2)to crush

3)to squash

ez- ezer
gelmek to come gel- gelir
germek to scretch ger- gerer
girmek

to come into,

to come into

gir- girer
görmek to see gör- görür
inmek

1)to go a lower place

2)to get off (train,bus

,car etc.)

3)to disembark

in- iner
kalmak

1)to stay

2)to remain

kal- kal覺r

konmak

to perch on/in kon- konar
kurmak

1to set

2to setup

kur- kurar
olmak

1)to be

2)to become

3)to happen

ol- olur
kazmak to dig kaz- kazar
ölmek to die öl- ölür
sanmak to think, to suppose san-

sanar

san覺r

sarmak to wrap sar- sarar
saymak

to count

say- sayar
silmek

1)to delete

2)to clean 

sil-  siler 
 solmak to fade  sol- solar 
 sönmek

1to lose the light

to become lightless

2to extinguish

(intransitive)

sön- söner
uymak 

1to obey

2to suit, to accept 

uy-  uyar 
 varmak to arrive, to reach  var-  var覺r 
vermek to give  ver-  verir 
 vurmak

1to hit

vur- vurur 
 yazmak to write  yaz-  yazar 
 yanmak

to burn

(intransitive) 

yan-  yanar 
 yenmek to beat (in a game)   yen- yener 
 yormak to make smb. tired  yor- yorar 
       
       

 

*1 : para bozmak:

For example, I have 10 liras. I´m giving it to you, and you are giving back to me two 5 liras. If you want, you give ten 1 liras. "para bozmak" is this.

 

examples:

 

Kitab覺n覺 bana verir misin? (Do you give your book to me?)

 

fazla (much)

yemek (1to eat, 2the meal)

bu kadar/u kadar (this much/that much)

ekmek (the bread)

doymak (to be/get satisfied)

 

ekmek+le--->ekmekle (with bread)

 

Fazla yemem, bu kadar ekmekle doyar覺m. (I don´t eat very much, I get satisfied by this much bread)

 

köy (the village)

gitmek (to go)

amca (the uncle (the brother of the father))

-gil (group meaning)

kalmak (to stay)

 

köy+e(dat.) ---> köye (to the village)

amca+m(pos. of 1st sing.)--->amcam

amca+m+gil ---> amcamgil (my uncle and his family)

amcamgil+de--->amcamgilde (at my uncle and his family)

kal+r+iz ------>kal覺r覺z (we stay)

 

Köye gittiimizde amcamgilde kal覺r覺z. (We stay at my uncle when we go to the village)

 

okul (the school)

ne zaman? (when?)

gelmek (to come)

 

okul+dan(abl.)---->okuldan (from the school)

gel+r+sin--------->gelirsin (you come)

 

Okuldan ne zaman gelirsin? (When do you come from the school?)

 

襤ngilizce (English language)

bilmek (to know)

 

bil+r mi+ -?

 

襤ngilizce bilir mi/biliyor mu? (Can s/he speak English? (direct: Does s/he know English?))

Çince bilirim/biliyorum. (I can speak Chinese. (direct: I know Chinese.))

Çinceyi iyi biliriz. (We can speak Chinese well. (direct: We know the Chinese well.))


Moha-ios and rmc9757 liked this lesson


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