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Turkish Grammar-6: Verbs-4

The suffix of the simple past tense is "-di" in Turkish. Like you can guess, it may become "-d覺,du,dü,t覺,ti,tu,tü" according to the vowel harmonies and the hardening of the consonant. In fact I don´t need to talk about this but I wanted to remind.

 

Like we were adding the tense suffix to the root of the verb at the previous tenses, we are adding it to the same place here too.

 

At this tense, we´re using the second type of personal suffixes. Let´s see them:

 

-di+m

-di+n

-di

-di+k

-di+niz

-di+ler

 

Let´s also see them with the simple past suffix "-di" on a chart:

 

-dim I ...ed
-din you ...ed
-di he/she/it ...ed
-dik we ...ed
-diniz you ...ed
-diler they ..ed

 

-dim mi? Did I ...?
-din mi? Did you ..?
-di mi? Did he/she/it ...?
-dik mi? Did we ...?
-diniz mi? Did you ...?
-diler mi? Did they ...?

 

Let´s choose a few verbs randomly : hat覺rlamak (to remember), unutmak (to forget)

 

By the way, let´s remember finding the root of the verb: we are removing the infinitive suffix "-mek/-mak". If we wanna make the verb negative, we add the negation suffix "-me/-ma" to the root.

 

hat覺rlamak-->hat覺rla- ---> hat覺rla+ma+mak--->hat覺rlamamak (not to remember)--->hat覺rlamamak--->hat覺rlama-

 

unutmak ----> unut- --> unut+ma+mak ----->unutmamak (not to forget)--->unutmamak-->unutma-

 

hat覺rlad覺m I remembered hat覺rlamad覺m I didn´t remember unuttum I forgot unutmad覺m I didn´t forget
hat覺rlad覺n you remembered hat覺rlamad覺n you didn´t remember unuttun you forgot unutmad覺n you didn´t forget
hat覺rlad覺 he remembered hat覺rlamad覺 he didn´t rmember unuttu he forgot unutmad覺 he didn´t forget
hat覺rlad覺k we remembered hat覺rlamad覺k we didn´t remember unuttuk we forgot unutmad覺k we didn´t forget
hat覺rlad覺n覺z you remembered hat覺rlamad覺n覺z you didn´t remember unuttunuz you forgot unutmad覺n覺z you didn´t forget
hat覺rlad覺lar they remembered hat覺rlamad覺lar they didn´t remember unuttular they forgot unutmad覺lar they didn´t forget

 

Hat覺rlad覺n m覺? (Did you remember?)

Unuttuk mu? (Did we forget?)

Hat覺rlamad覺lar m覺? (Didn´t they remember?)

Unutmad覺n m覺? (Didn´t you forget?)

etc.

 

Reminding the hardening of the consonant: "t" is hard consonant, "d" is soft consonant. "d" must harden and become "t".


Reminding the vowel harmonies : unut+di --> "u" is round, narrow and hard vowel. "i" is straight and soft vowel. We have four alternatives: i, 覺, u, ü. So as to make the harmony continue, firstly "i" must become a hard vowel (major vowel harmony) (namely here, 覺 or u). hen it must become a round vowel (only one alternative is "u").

 

hâlâ (still, yet)

olay (the event)

 

olay+覺(acc.)--->olay覺 (the event) (accusative)

unut+ma+d覺+n m覺? ---> unutmad覺n m覺?

 

Sen o olay覺 hâlâ unutmad覺n m覺? (Haven´t you forgetten that event yet?)

 

nere (which place, where?)

örenmek (to learn)

 

Türkçe+i(acc.)----->Türkçeyi (Turkish (accusative))

nere+den(abl.)------>nereden (from where?)

ören+di+n--------->örendin (you learnt)

 

Türkçeyi nereden örendin? (Where did you learn Turkish? (direct: From where did you learn Turkish?))

 

dört (four)

y覺l=sene (the year)

襤rlanda (Ireland)

yaamak (1to live, 2to dwell, to live)

sonra (1after (-den sonra), 2then, later)

geri dönmek (to return, to come back)

 

襤rlanda+da(locative)------->襤rlanda´da (in Ireland)

yaa+d覺+- --------------->yaad覺 (he lived)

Türkiye+e(dative)--------->Türkiye´ye (to Turkey)

geri dön+di+- ------------>geri döndü (he returned)

 

Dört y覺l 襤rlanda´da yaad覺 ve sonra Türkiye´ye geri döndü. (He lived in Ireland for four years and then returned Turkey)

 

dün (yesterday)

haberler (the news)

izlemek (to watch)

 

haberler+i(accusative)---->haberleri (the news)

izle+me+di+n mi? --------->izlemedin mi? (didn´t you watch?)

izle+me+di+m------------->izlemedim (i didn´t watch)

 

-Dün haberleri izlemedin mi? (Didn´t you watch the news yesterday?)

-Hay覺r, izlemedim. (No, I didn´t watch.)

 

Gürcistan (Georgia)

hiç (1never, 2ever)

gitmek (to go)

 

Gürcistan+e(dative)------------->Gürcistan´a (to Georgia)

git+di+n mi?--------------------->gittin mi? (did you go?)

 

Gürcistan´a hiç gittin mi? (Have you ever been to Georgia (direct: Have you ever gone to Georgia?))

 

öle (the noon)

-den sonra (after the ...)

hiçbir (any, no)

ey (thing)

yapmak (to do)

ikindi/ikindin (the midafternoon)

-e kadar (until, till)

uyumak (to sleep)

 

öle+den sonra------------->öleden sonra (afternoon)

yap+ma+d覺+k--------------->yapmad覺k (we didn´t do)

ikindi+e kadar--------------->ikindiye kadar (till midafternoon)

/ikindin+e kadar------------->ikindine kadar (this is preferred much more than the other one, but both of these are correct)

uyu+di+k------------------->uyuduk (we slept)

 

Öleden sonra hiçbir ey yapmad覺k, ikindine kadar uyuduk. (We did nothing in the afternoon, we slept till midafternoon)

You can also say "bir ey yapmad覺k". It makes no difference.

 

fark etmez=it makes no difference

 

ne (what)

demek (to say)

hiç (1never, 2ever)

anlamak (to understand)

 

de+di+n------------->dedin (you said)

anla+ma+d覺+m------->anlamad覺m (i didn´t understand)

 

Ne dedin, hiç anlamad覺m. (What did you say, I have never understood.)

 

ders (the lesson)

çal覺mak (1to work, 2to study (lesson)(yourself, not at school), 3to try to 4...5...)

istemek (to want)

bahçe (the garden)

oyun (the game)

oynamak (to play)

 

iste+me+di+ler-------->istemediler (they didn´t want)

bahçe+de------------>bahçede (in the garden)

oyna+d覺+lar---------->oynad覺lar (they played)

 

Ders çal覺mak istemediler, bahçede oyun oynad覺lar. (They didn´t want to study lesson, they played game in the garden)

 

bir ey (something (direct: a thing))

söylemek (to say)

ama (but)

sonra (then, later)

(-den) vazgeçmek (to abandon)

 

iste+di+- -------------->istedi (he wanted)

vazgeç+di- ------------>vazgeçti (he abandoned)

 

Bir ey söylemek istedi ama sonra vazgeçti. (He wanted to say something but abandoned.)


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