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Turkish Grammar-5: Pronouns-5.2

D) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

 

bu (this)

u (this/that) ((((further than "this", nearer than "that"))))

o (that)

 

O doktor deil. (1Not that doktor, 2he´s not doctor)

O, doktor deil. (He´s not doctor.)

 

öteki=öbür=dier=baka (other) (as adjective)

 

ötekisi/öteki=öbürü=dieri (the other one)

öteki+i(posessive)----->ötekisi/öteki

öbür+i(posessive)----->öbürü

dier+i(posessive)----->dieri

baka+覺(posessive)---->bakas覺 (someone else)

 

ötekiler=öbürleri=dierleri (the other ones)

öteki+ler(plural)------------------------>ötekiler

dier+leri(posessive of 3rd plural)------->dierleri

öbür+leri(posessive of 3rd plural)-------->öbürleri

baka+lar覺(posessive of 3rd plural)------->bakalar覺

 

örenci (the student)

dört (four)

çal覺kan (hardworking)

tembel (lazy)

 

örenci+ler(plural)+in(genitive) dört+i(posessive)----->örencilerin dördü (four of the students)

 

Örencilerin dördü çal覺kan, dierleri tembel. (Four of the students are hardworking, the other ones are lazy)

 

beri (the nearer place, hither)

öte (the further place, beyond)

beriki=berideki (the hither one)

öteki (the other one)

ötedeki (the beyond/the further one)

 

E) INDEFINITIVE PRONOUNS

 

baz覺 (some)

baz覺lar覺 (someones)

 

baz覺s覺=baz覺lar覺 (some of them)

baz覺+覺(posessive)----->baz覺s覺

baz覺+lar覺(posessive)--->baz覺lar覺

baz覺+lar+m覺z------>baz覺lar覺m覺z (some of us)

baz覺+lar+n覺z------>baz覺lar覺n覺z (some of you)

 

komak (to run)

ko+ici ------> koucu (the runner, the athlete)

yar覺 (the race)

bitirmek (to finish (transitive))

 

koucu+lar+覺n(genitive)----------------->koucular覺n (of the athletes)

koucular覺n baz覺lar覺 (some of the runners)

yar覺+覺(accusative)--------------------->yar覺覺

 

Koucular覺n baz覺lar覺 yar覺覺 bitiremedi. (Some of the athletes couldn´t finish the race)

 

hepsi (all of them)

hep+miz---->hepimiz (all of us)

hep+niz---->hepiniz (all of you)

 

ses (1the voice, 2the sound)

korkmak (to fear, to be afraid, to scare (intransitive))

 

ses+den(ablative)----------------------------->sesten (from the voice)

kork+di(simple past)+k(pers. sfx. of 1st pl.)----->korktuk (we feared, we were scared)

 

O sesten hepimiz çok korktuk. (We were scared of that voice very much.) (direct: We feared from that voice very much)

 

yemek (the meal)

 

yemek+ler+in(genitive) hepsi --------> yemeklerin hepsi (all of the meals)

 

Yemeklerin hepsi çok güzeldi. (All of the meals were very nice)

 

ayn覺 (same)

ayn覺+s覺n覺z---------->ayn覺s覺n覺z (you are the same)

 

Hepiniz ayn覺s覺n覺z. (All of you are the same)

 

çok (1much, 2many, 3too)

 

 

çok+i (posessive) --------> çou (most of them)

çok+miz------------------>çoumuz (most of us)

çok+niz------------------->çounuz (most of you)

 

ayn覺 (same)

sorun (the problem)

 

çok+i(posessive)+da(locative)--------->çounda (at most of them)

 

Çounda ayn覺 sorun var. (Most of them have the same problem)

 

s覺n覺f (the class, 2the classroom)

yar覺 (quasi-, semi-)

 

hâlâ (still, yet)

kantin (the canteen)

 

s覺n覺f+覺n yar覺+覺 ----------> s覺n覺f覺n yars覺 (half of the classroom)

 

-S覺n覺f覺n yar覺s覺 nerede? (Where is the half of the classroom?)

-Çou eve gitti, baz覺lar覺 da hâlâ kantinde. (Most of them went home, some of them are still in the canteen, too)

 

yemek (1the meal, 2to eat)

 

ye+me+di+k-------------->yemedik (we didn´t eat)

 

Çoumuz yemek yemedi/yemedik. (Most of us haven´t had meal)

 

birkaç (a few)

 

birkaç+覺---------->birkaç覺 (a few of them)

birkaç+m覺z------->birkaç覺m覺z (a few of us)

birkaç+n覺z-------->birkaç覺n覺z (a few of you)

 

hiçbir (any)

 

hiçbir+i---------->hiçbiri (none of them)

hiçbir+miz-------->hiçbirimiz (none of us)

hiçbir+niz-------->hiçbiriniz (none of you)

 

Hiçbiriniz anlamad覺n覺z m覺? (Did none of you understand?)

 

bunu (this (accusative)

öretmek (to teach)

 

bu+i(accusative)------------------->bunu

hiçbiriniz+e(dative)------------------>hiçbirinize (to none of you)

 

Bunu hiçbirinize öretemedik. (We could teach this none of you)

 

ödev (the homework)

 

birkaç+n覺z+覺n(genitive)------------------->birkaç覺n覺z覺n (of a few of you)

birkaç覺n覺z覺n ödevi (homeworks of a few of you)

 

Birkaç覺n覺z覺n ödevi çok iyi. (Homeworks of a few of you are very well)

 

birçok, pek çok (many)

 

You see the word "çok." I gave the conjugation of "çok" above.

 

Avrupa (Europe)

dil (1the tongue, 2the language)

aile (the family)

 

dil aile+i(posessive)----------------->dil ailesi (the language family)

dil aile+i+den----------------------->dil ailesinden (from the language family

 

dil+ler+in pek çok+i------------------>dillerin pek çou (many of the languages)

 

Avrupa´daki dillerin pek çou Hint-Avrupa dil ailesinden. (Many of the languages in Europe belong to Indo-European language family.) (direct: Many of the languages in Europe are from the Indo-European language family.)

 

komu (the neighbour)

erken (early)

kalkmak (1to stand up, 2to get up, 3..4..)

 

komu+lar+覺n birçok+i---------------->komular覺n birçou (many of the neighbours)

kalk+yor----------------------------->kalk覺yor

 

Komular覺n birçou erken kalk覺yor. (Many of tthe neighbours get up early)

 

s覺k覺nt覺=sorun (the problem)

her (every)

gün (the day)

yaamak (1to live, 2to dwell, 3to be alive, 4to experience, ......)

 

s覺k覺nt覺+lar+覺/sorun+lar+覺--------------->s覺k覺nt覺lar覺, sorunlar覺 (the problems (accusative)

yaa+r+覺z--------------------------->yaar覺z (we live)

 

Bu s覺k覺nt覺lar覺 birçoumuz her gün yaar覺z. (Many of us experience these problems everyday)

 

bir (1one, 2a/an, 3...4...6.......9...)

 

bir+i(posessive)--------------->biri (1one of them, 2someone)

bir+miz------------------------>birimiz (one of us)

bir+niz------------------------->biriniz (one of you)

 

birileri (someones)

 

-DEN B襤R襤=-襤N B襤R襤

 

soru (the question)

hatal覺 (faulty)

 

soru+lar+dan/soru+lar+覺n--------------->sorulardan/sorular覺n

 

Sorulardan biri hatal覺yd覺./Sorular覺n biri hatal覺yd覺 (One of the questions were faulty.)

 

Biriniz bunu aç覺klamak zorunda. (One of you has to explain this)

 

kimi (some)

 

kimi+i------------->kimisi (some of them)

kimi+ler+i--------->kimileri (someones, some of them)

kimi+miz----------->kimimiz (some of us)

kimi+niz----------->kiminiz (some of you)

 

You can also make "kimimiz" and "kiminiz" plural.


Istanbuladdict, raydin and hamzeh liked this lesson


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