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Turkish Grammar-5: Nouns-6.1

You shall see something about extra verbs during these three lessons. What are they? One of them is "idi" (the past tense), other one is "imi" (the unknownness: hearing, learning from somewhere/noticing, realising, surprising) and the last one is "ise" (if).

 

*a) If the last letter of the word is a consonant, "i" disappears. If the consonant is hard, the hardening of the consonant happens like you know. "d" becomes "t". If the consonant is soft, no hardenings happen.

 

*b) If you write them as suffix and if the last letter of the word is a vowel, "i" becomes "y" and it requires to obey the vowel harmonies.

 

*c) They don´t obey to vowel harmonies or hardenings when they are written separately. But we usually prefer to write them as suffixes. The meaning never changes when they are written separately or as suffix. No changing happens.

 

襤D襤

 

The second type of personal suffixes will be used like we have used at the simple past of the verbs.

 

idi m idim I was
idi n idin you were
idi   idi

he/she/it

was

idi k idik we were
idi niz idiniz you were
idi ler

idiler

/

-lerdi

they were

 

 

a) deil (not), yaln覺z (1alone, 2lonely)

 

deil idim (I was not).......... | deil mi idim? (was not i?)

deil idin  (you were not).... | deil mi idin? (were not you?)

deil idi   (he/she/it was not) |deil mi idi? (was not he/she/it?)

deil idik  (we were not)...... | deil mi idik? (were not we?)

deil idiniz (you were not).... | deil mi idiniz? (were not you?)

deil idiler (they were not)... | deil mi idiler?

/deiller idi.........................| /deiller mi idi?

 

yaln覺z idim (i was alone).........| yaln覺z deil idim (i was not alone)

yaln覺z idin (you were alone)....| yaln覺z deil idin (you were not alone)

yaln覺z idi (he/she/it was alone)| yaln覺z deil idi (he/she/it was not alone)

yaln覺z idik (we were alone)......| yaln覺z deil idik (we were not alone)

yaln覺z idiniz (you were alone)...| yaln覺z deil idiniz (you were not alone)

yaln覺z idiler (they were alone)...| yaln覺z deil idiler (they were not alone)

/yaln覺zlar idi..........................| /yaln覺z deiller idi

 

yaln覺z m覺 idim (was i alone?)..... | yaln覺z deil mi idim?

yaln覺z m覺 idin (were you alone?).| yaln覺z deil mi idin?

yaln覺z m覺 idi (was he alone?)......| yaln覺z deil mi idi?

yaln覺z m覺 idik (were we alone?)...| yaln覺z deil mi idik?

yaln覺z m覺 idiniz (were you alone?)| yaln覺z deil mi idiniz?

yaln覺z m覺 idiler (were they alone?)| yaln覺z deil mi idiler?

/yaln覺zlar m覺 idi?...................... | /yaln覺z deiller mi idi?

 

The way we prefer much more: to add as suffix

 

yaln覺z idi---------->yaln覺zd覺

"i" disappeared and "-di" obeyed the vowel harmonies.

deil idi----------->deildi

"i" disappeared.

 

yaln覺zd覺m (i was alone).....yaln覺z deildim (i wasn´t alone)

yaln覺zd覺n........................yaln覺z deildin

yaln覺zd覺..........................yaln覺z deildi

yaln覺zd覺k.........................yaln覺z deildik

yaln覺zd覺n覺z.......................yaln覺z deildiniz

yaln覺zd覺lar........................yaln覺z deildiler

/yaln覺zlard覺......................./yaln覺z deillerdi

 

yaln覺z m覺 idi------>yaln覺z m覺yd覺?

 

"i" becomes "y" because "m覺" is vowel-ended.

 

yaln覺z m覺yd覺m? (was i alone?).......yaln覺z deil miydim? (wasn´t i alone?)

yaln覺z m覺yd覺n? (were you alone?)..yaln覺z deil miydin? (weren´t you alone?)

yaln覺z m覺yd覺? (is he/she/it alone?).yaln覺z deil miydi? (wasn´t he alone?)

yaln覺z m覺yd覺k? (were we alone?)....yaln覺z deil miydik? (weren´t we alone?)

yaln覺z m覺yd覺n覺z? (were you alone?).yaln覺z deil miydiniz? (weren´t you alone?)

yaln覺z m覺yd覺lar? (were they alone?).yaln覺z deil miydiler? (weren´t they alone?)

/yaln覺zlar m覺yd覺?........................../yaln覺z deiller miydi?

 

dün (yesterday)

okul (the school)

yok (1absent, 2there isn´t/aren´t)

 

okul+da(locative)------------->okulda (at the school)

yok+di(past)+m(pers. sfx.)---->yoktum (i was absent)

 

reminding: "k" is hard consonant, "d" is soft consonant. "d" had to harden and become "t".

"o" is hard and round. "i" had to become hard and round.

 

Dün okulda yoktum. (I was absent at the school yesterday)

You can also write as "yok idim" but we usually prefer to add as suffix like i said a few times.

 

karde (sibling (mutual name of brother and sister))

geçen hafta (last week)

çok (1very, 2much, many, 3too)

hasta (1ill, sick, 2the patient)

 

karde+m(posessive)---------------->kardeim (my sibling)

hasta+idi--------------------------->hastayd覺 (he was ill)

 

Kardeim geçen hafta çok hastayd覺. (My sibling was too ill last week)

 

iki (two)

saat (1hour, 2clock, 3the watch)

önce (1before, 2ago)

sahil (the seashore) (pronunciation: saahil)

 

sahil+de(locative)+idi+k(personal)---------->sahildeydik (we were on the seashore)

 

襤ki saat önce sahildeydik. (We were on the seashore two hours ago)

 

geçen y覺l (last year)

Mersin (one of the southern cities of Turkey which is located at Mediterranean Sea)

gitmek (1to go, ...)

ora (that place, there)

bir (1one, ....)

ay (1month, 2moon)

kalmak (1to stay, 2to remain, ......)

her ey (everything)

çok (1very, 2much, ....)

güzel (nice)

 

Mersin+e(dative)------------>Mersin´e (to Mersin)

git+di(past)+k(personal)----->gittik (we went)

ora+da(locative)------------->orada (at that place, there)

kal+d覺(past)+k(personal)----->kald覺k (we stayed)

güzel+di(past)--------------->güzeldi (it was good)

 

Geçen y覺l Mersin´e gittik. Orada bir ay kald覺k. Her ey çok güzeldi. (We have been to Mersin last year. We stayed there for a month. Everything was very nice)

 

(hungry)

ama=fakat (but)

yine de (nevertheless)

yemek (1the meal, 2to eat)

 

deil+di(past)+m(personal)------------------->deildim (i wasn´t)

ye+di(past)+m(personal)--------------------->yedim (i ate)

 

Aç deildim ama yine de yedim. (I wasn´t hungry but I ate nevertheless.)

 

saat (1hour, 2the watch, 3clock)

be (five)

nere (where, which place)

 

be+de(locative)---------------------------->bete (at five)

nere+de(locative)+idi(past)+niz(personal)----->neredeydiniz (where were you?)

 

reminding: "i" became "y" because "e" is a vowel.

Saat bete neredeydiniz? (Where were you at five o´clock?)

 

yan (1nearside, .......)

kimse / hiç kimse (nobody)

yok (1absent, 2there isn´t/aren´t)

yaln覺z (alone)

 

yan+m(poss.)+da(locative)------------->yan覺mda (beside me)

yok+di--------------------------------->yoktu (there wasn´t)

 

Yan覺mda (hiç) kimse yoktu; yaln覺zd覺m. (I was with nobody, I was alone (direct:There were nobody beside me, I was alone))

 

oda (the room)

gürültü (the noise)

gürültülü (noisy)

var (there is/are)

 

oda+da(locative)------------->odada (in the room)

var+d覺(past)----------------->vard覺 (there was/were)

 

Odada çok gürültü vard覺. (There was much noise in the room)

 

gürültülü+idi------------------>gürültülüydü (it was noisy)

 

Oda çok gürültülüydü. (The room was too noisy)

 

konser (the concert)

dans (the dance)

grup (the group)

gösteri (the show)

sonra (1after, 2later, 3then)

-den sonra (after ...) (direct: later from ...)

 

dans grup+i(possessive)-------------->dans grubu (the dance group)

dans grup+i(posessive)+in(genitive) gösteri+i(posessive)+den(ablative)--------->dans grubunun (of the dance group) gösterisinden (from its show)

 

Konser, dans grubunun gösterisinden sonrayd覺. (The concert was after the show of the dance group.)


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