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Lesson4: Minor Vowel Harmony

____extra note : If you can´t read the letters because they disappear in the edge of the lesson area, you can solve this problem by zooming the page. I have noticed this later and I wanted to forewarn you.____

 

Reminding : The major vowel harmony was the harmony in aspect of hardness and softness. We have analysed the vowels about those features. Now, we shall analyse them in different aspects.

 

düz : flat_______________________ |

yuvarlak : round_________________O

dar : tight, narrow, constricted_____()

geni : large____________________(( ))

 

The Turkish language experts have referred to the vowels in four names which I have showed above. Those names hinge on the shapes of the mouth while pronouncing the letters.

For example, we really give a shape "O" when we pronounce the letters "O" and "Ö"; we keep our mouths large when we pronounce the letters "A" end "E" and etc.

 

Before showing in the charts, it may require to do short explanations:

düz ünlüler (the flat vowels) : a, e, 覺, i

yuvarlak ünlüler (the round vowels) : o, ö, u, ü

dar ünlüler (the constricted/narrow vowels) : 覺, i, u, ü [we give our mouths a constricted shape when we pronounce these letters, we make our mouths narrower.]

geni ünlüler (the large vowels) : a, e, o, ö ["o" and "ö" are pronounced by a larger shape of mouth in comparison with u and ü.]

 

And now 

Showing in the charts:

 

1)

  GEN襤 GEN襤
  KALIN 襤NCE
DÜZ a e
YUVARLAK o ö
  DAR DAR
  KALIN 襤NCE
DÜZ i
YUVARLAK u ü

 

or

 

2) 

 

özellik : 1feature, 2attribute

ünlü : vowel

 

ÖZELL襤KLER KALIN 襤NCE DÜZ YUVARLAK GEN襤 DAR
ÜNLÜLER            
a X   X   X  
e   X X   X  
X   X     X
i
X X  
X
o X     X X  
ö   X   X X  
u X     X   X
ü   X   X   X

 

or

 

Let´s start to learn these by using example suffixes.

 

If a suffix has a narrow vowel, you should know it has got variations with another narrow vowels. **Like you see below:

 

1) -li (**-l覺,-lu,-lü)


1.To have got something or a feature. 2.To belong* to somewhere or a group or foundation.

*I shan´t explain about this meaning in this lesson because I already will explain it in next lessons.

 

襤lk senemde de çok baar覺l覺yd覺m. (I was very successful in my first year as well.)

 

baar覺 : success

baar覺+l覺--------------------->baar覺l覺 (successful)

purely translation: the one that has got success.

 

ilk : first

sene, y覺l : year

çok : 1very, 2too, 3much

 

First step: the major vowel harmony: hardness-softness : The last vowel is I and it is hard. The suffix must contain a hard vowel. 襤 and Ü are eliminated.

Second step: [looking at the chart above] and now the minor vowel harmony : I is a vowel that is flat, therefore the suffix mustn´t include a round vowel. Thus u and ü are eliminated. Only one alternative remained: 覺

baar覺LI, baar覺lu, baar覺li, baar覺lü

______________________________________________________________________

 

Evli deilim. (I´m not married.)

 

ev : house, home

ev+li------------------------>evli : Perhaps ancient Turks used to call the people who got married "the one that has house" because they used to think one would have a house if one is married. But, in modern Turkish, we don´t use the word "evli" to express that someone has a house. We use this word for the people who are married.

 

deil* : not

*I shall tell about the negation in another lessons.

 

It already has got only one vowel: e.

First step: E is soft. Therefore "-l覺" and "-lu" can´t be brought, because I and U are hard vowels. We have two possibilities: -li and -lü.

Second step: E is not round, it´s flat. Because Ü is round, "-lü" is eliminated as well. The ideal one is "-li."

evL襤, evl覺, evlu, evlü

_______________________________________________________________________

 

Mutlu günlerimiz de olacak kötü günlerimiz de olacak. (We shall have both happy days and bad days.)

 

gün : day

kötü : bad

 

mut [Well nigh nobody knows this word´s meaning, but you can be sure this word stayed in ancient Turkic languages.]

Otherwise "Mut" is a district in Mersin*; as an extra knowledge.

*one of the southern cities of Anatolia, that locates in the edge of the Mediterranean Sea.

 

mut_ günlerimiz (mut + our days)

mut+li---------------------------->mutlu (happy) : the one that has "mut". 

mutlu günlerimiz (our happy days : our days that have got "mut".)

 

First step: U is a hard vowel. -li and -lü are eliminated, beause 襤 and Ü are soft. We have two possibilities: "-l覺" and "-lu".

Second step: U is a round vowel. If we bring "-l覺", the minor vowel harmony is breached, becasue I is a flat vowel, not a round one. Therefore "-lu" is ideal.

mutLU, mutli, mutlü, mutl覺

 

_________________________________________________________

 

Be çocuklu bir ailenin en küçük çocuuydu. (He was the youngest child of a family with five children.)

 

be : five

çocuk : child

bir : 1one, 2a, an, 3.........8.........

küçük : small, little

 

be çocuk__ aile (five children + family)

çocuk+li--------------------------------->çocuklu

be çocuklu aile (the family with five children) : the family that have got five children.

 

First step: the last vowel of the word is U. It is a hard vowel. -li and -lü are eliminated.

Second step: U is round, therefore we cannot bring -l覺 because I is not round. Only one alternative : -lu

 

çocukLU, çocukli, çocukl覺, çocuklü

 

_______________________________________________________

 

Baz覺 ark覺larda, iirlerde 襤stanbul´dan "yedi tepeli ehir" diye söz edilir. (One refers to 襤stanbul "the city with seven hills" in some songs and poems.)

 

baz覺 : some

ark覺 : song

iir : poem

yedi : seven

tepe : hill

ehir : city

söz : 1promise, 2word, words, sentences, (any given word/s that are said)

söz etmek : 1to refer, 2to talk about

 

yedi tepe__ ehir (seven hills + city)

yedi tepeli ehir (the city with seven hills : the city that has got seven hills.)

 

First step: The last vowel of the word is "e". It´s a soft vowel. -l覺 and -lu are eliminated.

Second step: E is a flat vowel. -lü is eliminated because Ü is a round, not flat.

 

tepeL襤, tepel覺, tepelu, tepelü

 

____________________________________________________________

 

Kazadan yaral覺 kurtuldular. (They freed theirselves from the accident with injuries. (purely : They freed ... injuredly))

 

kaza : 1crash, 2accident

yara : injury

kurtulmak : 1to free, 2to rid of, 3to escape..............

 

yara+li-------------------------->yaral覺 (injured : the one that has injuries)

 

First step: The last vowel of the word is A, it´s hard. -li and -lü eliminated.

Second step: A is a flat vowel. -lu is eliminated because U is a round vowel.

 

yaraLI , yarali, yaralu, yaralü

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

Felsefe tarihiyle ilgilenenler için önemli bir kitap. ((It is) an important book for ones who are insterested in the history of philosophy.)

 

felsefe : philosophy

tarih : 1history, 2date

ilgilenmek : to be interested in

... için : for ...

önem : importance

kitap : book

 

önem_ bir kitap (importance + a book)

önemli bir kitap (an important book : a book that has got importance)

 

First step : The last vowel of the word is "e". It is a soft vowel. -l覺 and -lu are eliminated.

Second step : E is a flat vowel. -lü can´t be brought because Ü is round, not flat.

 

önemL襤, öneml覺, önemlu, önemlü

 

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

 

2) -siz (** -s覺z,-suz,-süz)

without, -less, not having

 

Son günlerde çok mutsuz görünüyorsun. (You look so unhappy in recent days.)

 

son : 1last, 2latest, 3recent

gün : day

görünmek : 1to appear, 2to seem, to look (like)

 

mut+siz------------------------------>mutsuz (unhappy)

 

First step : U is hard. -siz and -süz are eliminated.

Second step : U is round. -s覺z cannot be brought because I is not round.

 

mutSUZ , muts覺z, mutsiz, mutsüz

 

__________________________________________________________

 

Önemli bir i yap覺yoruz ve hatas覺z bir i olmak zorunda. (We are doing an important work and it has to be a work having no mistake.)

 

önemli : important

i : 1work, 2business, 3job

yapmak : 1to do, 2to fulfil

hata : 1mistake, 2error, 3fault

 

hata_ bir i (mistake + a work)

hatas覺z bir i (an impeccable work, a work without any mistake : a work that has got no mistake)

 

First step : The last vowel is A, it is hard. -li and -lü are eliminated.

Second step : A is flat. -lu can´t be brought because U is not flat, it is round.

 

hataSIZ, hatasiz, hatasuz, hatasüz

 

____________________________________________________________

 

Sayg覺s覺z davran覺lar覺na devam etmeseydin sana k覺zmayacaklard覺. (They wouldn´t get angry with you if you didn´t go on your unrespectful behaviours.)

 

sayg覺 : respect

davran覺 : behaviour

devam etmek : to go on

sana : to you

k覺zmak : to get angry

 

sayg覺__ davran覺lar (respect + behaviours)

sayg覺s覺z davran覺lar (unrespectful behaviours : behaviours without any respect, the behaviours that has got no respect)

 

First step: The last vowel is I, it is a hard vowel. -li and -lü are eliminated.

Second step: I is flat, not round. -lu is eliminated as well, because U is round.

 

sayg覺SIZ, sayg覺siz, sayg覺suz, sayg覺süz

 

____________________________________________________________

 

Siz bizsiz hiçbir yere gidemezsiniz, çünkü buralar覺 bilmiyorsunuz. (You can´t go anywhere without us, because you don´t know about here.)

 

siz : you (plural, 2nd plural)

biz : we

hiçbir : none

hiçbir yer : nowhere (none of places)

gitmek : 1to go, 2to visit, 3to go off

çünkü : because

bura : this place, here

bilmek : to know

 

biz+siz--------------------------->bizsiz (without us)

 

first step : 襤 . 襤 is soft. -s覺z and -suz are eliminated.

second step : 襤 is flat, -süz can´t be brought, because Ü is round. -siz is the ideal one.

 

bizS襤Z, bizs覺z, bizsuz, bizsüz

_____________________________________________________________

 

Maç golsüz bitti. (The match finished without any goal.)

 

maç : match

gol : goal (score in football)

bitmek : 1to finish, to end, 2to grow

 

gol+siz--------------------------->golsüz (without goal)

 

If you ask, why not "golsuz"? You should return to the lesson of Major Vowel Harmony and look at the exceptional situations.

 

L makes the sound O lighter, therefore a suffix that contains soft vowel is needed. -s覺z and -suz are eliminated.

O is a round vowel, -siz can´t be brought because 襤 is not a round vowel.

 

golSÜZ, golsiz, golsuz, golsüz

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

 

3) M襤 (**m覺, mu, mü)

The interrogative postposition M襤 

It is written strictly separately. This is a certain rule.

 

S覺nav覺n yar覺n. (Your exam is tomorrow.)

S覺nav覺n yar覺n m覺? (Is your exam tomorrow?)

 

yar覺n + m覺---------------------------------> yar覺n m覺?

 

First step: The last vowel of the word is I. I is hard. mi and mü are eliminated.

Second step: I is flat. mu is eliminated because U is round.

 

yar覺n MI, yar覺n mi, yar覺n mu, yar覺n mü

__________________________________________________________________

 

Türkiye´nin bakenti Ankara. (The capital of Turkey is Ankara.)

Türkiye´nin bakenti Ankara m覺 襤stanbul mu? (Is Turkey´s capital city Ankara or 襤stanbul?)

 

bakent : capital city

 

First step: The last vowel is A. A is hard. mi and mü are eliminated.

Second step: A is flat, mu can´t be brought because U is round.

Ankara MI, Ankara mi, Ankara mu, Ankara mü

 

First step: The last vowel is U. U is hard. mi and mü are eliminated.

Second step: U is round, m覺 can´t be brought because I is flat.

襤stanbul MU, 襤stanbul mi, 襤stanbul mü, 襤stanbul m覺

___________________________________________________________________

 

Dün arkadalar覺 geldi. (Yesterday his friends came.)

Dün arkadalar覺 geldi mi? (Did his friends come yesterday?)

 

dün : yesterday

arkada : friend

gelmek : to come

 

First step: The last vowel of "geldi" is 襤. 襤 is soft. m覺 and mu are eliminated.

Second step: 襤 is flat. mu is eliminated, because U is round.

 

geldi M襤, geldi mu, geldi mü, geldi m覺

 

I will tell about this postposition in another lesson in details, therefore I will not go into the details here.

__________________________________________________________________

 

4) -nci (**-inci, -覺nc覺, -uncu, -üncü)

To express the ordinal numbers.

 

1st birinci 2nd ikinci 3rd üçüncü 4th dördüncü 5th beinci
6th alt覺nc覺 7th yedici 8th sekizinci 9th dokuzuncu 10th onuncu
11th on birinci 12th on ikinci 13th on üçüncü 14th on dördüncü 15th on beinci
16th on alt覺nc覺 17th on yedinci 18th on sekizinci 19th on dokuzuncu 20th yirminci
22th yirmi ikinci     28th yirmi sekizinci 29th yirmi dokuzuncu 30th otuzuncu
                40th k覺rk覺nc覺
                50th ellinci
                60th altm覺覺nc覺
                70th yetmiinci
                80th sekseninci
                90th doksan覺nc覺
                100th yüzüncü


            1000th bininci

If you put a stop beside the number´s own, you use that stop instead of the -nci suffix.

2., 2´nci, 2.nci, 14. 14´üncü, 14.üncü, 50., 50´nci, 50.nci, 138., 138´inci, 138.inci

 

The suffix is -nci indeed. If you bring this suffix to a word that ends with a consonant, the narrow vowels become helper vowels.

 

bir_nc_ -----------------------> birinci, biruncu, birüncü, bir覺nc覺

 

襤 of "bir" is soft. -覺nc覺 and -uncu are eliminated.

襤 is flat. -üncü is eliminated because Ü is round.

 

iki_nc_ ------------------------> ikinci, ikinc覺, ikincu, ikincü

 

"iki" already ends with a vowel, therefore there is no need to any helper vowel. We add just -nci.

 

襤 of "iki" is soft. -nc覺 and -ncu are eliminated.

襤 is flat. -üncü is eliminated because Ü is round.

 

alt覺_nc_ -----------------------> alt覺nc覺, alt覺nci, alt覺ncu, alt覺ncü

 

"alt覺" already ends with a vowel, no need to any helper vowel. Just -nci is needed.

 

I of "alt覺" is hard. -nci and -ncü are eliminated.

I is flat, -ncu is eliminated because U is round.

 

on dokuz_nc_ ------------------> on dokuzuncu*, on dokuz覺nc覺, on dokuzinci, on dokuzüncü

 

*analysing : 10+9th

 

U of "dokuz" is hard. -inci and -üncü are eliminated.

U is round, -覺nc覺 is eliminated because I is not a round vowel.

 

yüz k覺rk dört_nc_ ---------------> yüz k覺rk dördüncü*, yüz k覺rk dördinci, yüz k覺rk dörduncu, yüz k覺rk dörd覺nc覺

 

*analysing : 100+40+4th

 

Ö of "dört" is soft. -覺nc覺 and -uncu are eliminated.

Ö is round, -inci is eliminated because 襤 is not a round vowel.

 

_____________________________________________________________

 

襤kinci yar覺da alt覺 gol gördük. (We saw six goals in the second half.)

 

yar覺 : half (as a noun)

görmek : to see

 

iki__ yar覺 (two + the half)

ikinci yar覺 (the second half)

 

______________________________________________________________

 

Dört yüz kiinin kat覺ld覺覺 bir s覺navda yirmi sekizinci olmak da güzel bir baar覺. (It is a good success to be twenty eighth in an exam that four hundred people joined.)

 

kii : person

kat覺lmak : to join

s覺nav : exam

 

*analysing 20+8th (yirmi+sekizinci) --> yirmi sekizinci (28th)

______________________________________________________________

 

Bu, yazd覺覺m dördüncü ders. (This is the fourth lesson that I have written.)

 

yazmak : to write

ders : lesson

 

dört____ ders (four + lesson)

dördüncü ders (the fourth lesson)

_______________________________________________________________

 

Türkiye´de seksen bir il var ve Mersin otuz üçüncü il. (There are eighty one cities in Turkey and Mersin is thirty third city.)

 

il, ehir : city

"il" is commonly used in the administrative official texts.

"ehir" is general one of those names.

 

otuz üç____ il (thirty three + city)

otuz üçüncü il (the thirty third city)

________________________________________________________________

 

Bu y覺lki 30 Eylül Mevlâna´n覺n ölümünün yedi yüz k覺rk birinci y覺l dönümü olacak. (30th September of this year will be the seven hundred and forty first anniversary of the death of Rumi.)

 

Eylül : September

Mevlâna : Rumi

y覺l dönümü : anniversary

 

yedi yüz k覺rk bir___ y覺l dönümü (seven hundred and forty one + anniversary)

yedi yüz k覺rk birinci y覺l dönümü




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